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I^arbarli (Smallest library 




A Guide K@^ 


-^©x Transvaal 

British Association Jor the Advancement of Science. 
Johannesburg Meeting, 190J. 


The Transvaal. 

Compiled and Edited by 
H. T. Montague Bell and Rev. C. Arthur Lane, 

Printed for the Transv'aal Committees of the 

South African Association for the Advancement of Science. 

Published by 

The Johannesburg Reception Committee. 

Bartholomew & Lawlor, Ptmlftx^, 


THE mineral wealth of the Transvaal is so great that a 
complete description of it would require several large 
volumes. This Hand-book does not profess to do more 
than point out concisely some of the more prominent aspects 
of it, and the leading features of the towns which have 
rapidly grown up as the result of its development. We 
have borne in mind that most of the scientists who are 
honouring South Africa with their presence this year will 
be unable to spend more than a week in the Colony, and 
that the avenues of communication are restricted. 

Of history, as members of the Association understand 
the term, there is very little; for, twenty years ago, the site 
of the most important town was barren veld ; and seventy 
^ears have not yet passed since Potgieter and Maritz dis- 
puted with the Matabele for possession of the country north 
of the Vaal and south of the Limpopo. The story of the 
Transvaal as a settlement for white people would be little 
more to-day than a dull repetition of how a number of 
Dutch emigrants trekked from Cape Colony in 1836 and 
parcelled out the land among themselves ; were it not that 
men of science and skill from every part of the civilised 
world have aided in the development of its natural re- 
sources. Without the aid of scientists the Transvaal would 
still be little more than grazing ground for the cattle of 
Dutch settlers; but with their aid an industry has been 
established which is the world's wonder. The commercial 
interests involved in that industry are enormous, and these 
have made the towns such as they are. 

It is a fashion with many European travellers to 
compare Johannesburg adversely with towns of similar ex- 
tent and population in "the old country " which have taken 
centuries to develop. We expect a little more discrimination 
than that from the distinguished visitors whom the Trans- 
vaal welcomes in August, 1905. 

We do not pretend that our commercial metropolis 
is all that it ought to be; but we are sure l\\'aX. \\» \^ ^'a.^'^S^ 
improving. The Jofty buildings put. v.p svxvc.^ xJcifc ^-ax "ax^ 


submitted as indications of future hope, and we ask that our 
aims may be judged by them rather than by. the tin shan- 
ties which served the temporary needs of shopkeepers and 
residents when as yet the permanence of gold mining was 

At first it was intended to present in these pages only a 
guide to the Witwatersrand, but at the suggestion of the 
Pretoria Publication Committee that plan was extended so 
as to give an idea of the Transvaal generally. But it is 
only . an idea, and has no pretensions to completeness. 
Restrictions of space have compelled great reduction in 
the size of available illustrations and much abreviation of 
the information supplied. Shortness of time, too, has 
made it impracticable to get photographs of more distant 
places, some of which have no resident photographers 
within many miles, not even amateurs. 

So far as was possible within the time allowed the 
Editors have endeavoured to get information at first hand 
from people who are known to be authorities with regard to 
the localities, or the branches of science they describe. 

The initials at the end of most of the sections are 
explained in the Acknowledgments that follow this preface. 
As to the order in which subjects are placed in the 
handbook it should be stated that Pretoria and Johannes- 
burg have priority of place as the capital and the com- 
mercial centre. The other larger towns are in alphabetical 
order, so are the smaller municipalities, this being the 
customary order in which the different districts are placed 
in Government publications. The population figures are 
from the Census returns of April 17, 1904. 

B. A. visitors travelling to the Transvaal gold-fields 
through Natal will pass through Volksrust (page 164), 
Standerton (page 129), Heidelberg (page 108) and Ger- 
miston (page 106) ; but will not have time to examine 
those towns. It may be useful for them to have in the 
handbook a short account of each. The accompanying 
alphabetical table of contents will enable travellers to find 
readily a description of most of the places they are likely 
to have heard about and most of the things they are 
desirous to become personally acquainted with. 

TheTransvaalcontaiDssomatiyeDterprising commercial 
firms to whom its modernity is largely due that if any were 
mentioned, even the moat notabie, the allotted space would 
be far exceeded, a.nd the Editors would be open to the 
charge of being invidious. The commercial element and 
the personal element have, therefore, been reluctantly 
omitted from the following pages. 

Readers may express surprise that so little appears in 
this Handbook about tin mines and iron mines. The reason 
is that the discovery and working of those minerals are at 
present in the initial stages. It is better not to be didactic 
about things that are incompletely developed. C, A. L. 





General Sumhiary of Transvaal History - - I 

History of the Capital - - 9 

Description of the Capital - - 14 

Transvaal Museum, Pretoria - - 29 

Zoological Gardens, Pretoria - - 21 

The Pretoria Diamond Fields - - 23 

Growth of Johannesburg Municipality - - 37 

Statistics of Johannesburg - - 42 

Market Prices and Rates of Labour - - 48 

Transvaal Imports and Exports - - 50 

Newspapers of the Transvaal - - 53 

Johannesburg Stock Exchange - - 54 

Streets and Buildings of Johannesburg - - 56 

Government Offices - - 60 

Suburban Townships of Johannesburg - - 62 

Drives in the vicinity of Johannesburg - - 64 

The Wanderers' Club, Johannesburg - - 66 

Racing and the Jockey Club - - 68 

Associations and Social Clubs - - 69 

Theatres of Johannesburg - - 75 

Transvaal Post Office Statistics - - 76 

Johannesburg Parks and Open Spaces - * 77 

Public Library of Johannesburg - - 82 

Transvaal Technical Institute - " 85 

Water Supply of the Witwatersrand - - 88 

The Government Observatory, Johannesburg- - 90 

Hospitals of the Transvaal - " 93 

Johannesburg Cemetery - - 94 

The Prison and Criminal Statistics - . 96 

Larger Municipalities of the Transvaal (see Alphabetical List) 99 

Smaller Municipalities of the Transvaal (see Alphabetical List) 133 

Brief History of the Gold Mining Industry - - \.iv 

General Methods of Mining for Gold - - v\i 

Mechanical Engineering on the Mines 
Metallo^cal Delails ol Gold Mining 
White, Black and Yellow Laboai 
Processes used in the Extraction of Gold 
Statistics of Gold Production 
Miscellaneous Mining Intelligence 
The Coal Industry of the Transvaal 
Geolc^ical Features of the Transvaal 
Geolt^ of the Rand Gold-fields 
Geolt^ ol the Transvaal Coal-fields 
Government Mining Returns 
The Modderfbntein Dynamite Factory 
Religious Communities of the Transvaal 
The Central South African Railway 
Elementary Education in the Transvaal 
The Transvaal Volunteers 





Amersf oort Municipality 
Amsterdam Municipality 
Aapies River, Pretoria 

Barberton and District 
Belfast and District 
Bergendal Township 
Betnal Municipality 
Boksburg Municipality 
Bushveld District 
Bushman's River 

Carolina and District 
Christiana Township 
Crocodile River 




18, 125 




99, 108 

168, 169 


137. 138 
138, 139, 167 


De Kaap and Kaap Valley loi, 104, 173 

De Lange's Drift ... 129 

Diamond Hill ... 24 

Doornkop ... 117, 157 

Duivel's Kantoor ... 102 

Ermelo Municipality ... 140-143 

Florida and Florida Lake ... 154, 155 

Fourteen Streams ... 167 

Frederikstad ... 161 

Gemsbokfontein ... 186 

Germiston Municipality ... 106-108 

Greymont Township ... 154 

Groot Marico ... 168 

Haartebeestfontein ... 114 

Hatherley Distillery ... 23 

Hekpoort Valley ... 118 

Heidelberg Municipality ... 108-111 

Highveld ... 168 

Jacobsdal ... 170 

ohannesburg Municipality 37-55 

Associations and Clubs ... 69-74 

Hospitals and Institutions 93, 94 

Parks and Play Grounds ... 77-8o 

Streets and Buildings ... 56-61 

Suburban Districts ... 62-64 

Theatres ... 75» 76 

Kaapsche Hoop and Berg loi, 103, 105 

Klein Oliphants' River ... 118,122 

Klein Marico ... 168, 169 

Klerksdorp Municipality 1 11-114, 167 

Koedoespoort ... 23 

Krugersdorp Municipality ... 114-118 

Langlaagte Gold Discovery ... 174 

Lichtenburg and District ... 143-H5 

Limpopo River ... 123 

Lydenourg and District 145-147, 171 

Machadodorp Municipality ... 147 

Magaliesberg Range ... 125 

Magnet Heights ... 147 

Ma]uba Hill ... 165 

Makapan's Caves 
Malopo Distiict 
Marico District 
Meintjes Kop 
Middleburg Municipality 






Modderfontein Dynamite Factory 257 
Mooi River ... 125, 128 

Moord Drift ... i54 

Nylstroom Municipality 

Ottoshoop Township 

Paardekraal Monument 

Pietersburg Municipality .. 
Piet Retief and District 
Pilgrim's Rest 
Potchefstroom Municipality 
Potgietersrust and District . 
Premier Diamond Mine 
Pretoria Described 19-22 







123, 124 

165, 166 


II, 125 



129, 158 


Robert's Drift 
Roodepoort Municipality 
Rustenburg and District 


Schwei/.er Reneke 
Springs M unicipality 
Standerton Municipality 
Steelpoort Valley 




II, 125, i57» 158 



112-113, 161 

158, 159. 167 



Vaal River 6, 114, 138, 164 

Van der Merwe .•• 26 

Vecht Kopje ••• *22 
Ventersdorp and District ... 161-162 

Vereeniging Township ... 162, 163 

Vogelstruisfontein ... i74 

Volksrust 140, 164. 165. i6r 

Warm baths 
Waterberg District 
Water val Boven 
Witpoortje Falls 
Witwatersrand 8, loi, 107, 109, 
Wolmaransstad and District 
Wonderboom Poort ... * 

Zeerust and District 
Zoutpansberg District 
Zoutp'AUsbetvi, Cjo\^^«i\^"5> 

140, 269 

148, 154 






This Handbook has been compiled with the object of 
placing in the hands of the visiting members of the British 
Association, 1905, a souvenir of their visit to the Trans- 
vaal. To this end they have sought and obtained the 
■services of many representative men and public bodies in 
order that the book may be a gift from the Colony at large 
to its visitors. It is, therefore, the gratifying duty of the 
Editors to bear testimony to the generous response with 
which their requests for help h ive been met, and to express 
their thanks to all those who have so readily given them 
their assistance in the compilation. The system of identify- 
ing contributions with their authors by means of initials 
has been adopted, and will serve to indicate the measure of 
the Editors' obligations. 

For the opening chapters dealing with the Transvaal 
and Pretoria the Editors are indebted to the Pretoria 
Publication Committee, who appointed Dr. Engelenberg, 
Editor of the Volkstem, and Mr. H. S. Cooke, of the 
Education Department, an editorial sub-committee. The 
Pretoria Committee has also rendered good service in 
helping to obtain information from distant districts, and 
providing many illustrations for these chapters, including 
the two coloured prints published at the Government 
Printing Works. To the Government Printer and the 
Pretoria Committee is due also the official map of the 
Transvaal, which accompanies this book. 

For the section devoted to the gold-mining industry 
the Editors are under great obligation to several scientific 
societies of the Rand. The South African Chemical, 
Metallurgical and Mining Society, the South African 
Association of Engineers and the Geological Society of 
South Africa readily undertook responsibility for different 
chapters in this section, and were able to enlist the services 
<f/ writers well qualihed to treat such special subjects. 


In the chapter that deals with the history of the 
Transvaal gold-fields the writer claims no originality for his 
contribution. All that relates to the discovery and history 
of the Witwatersrand Fields has been so ably and fully set 
forth by Mr. H. H. Webb in his Presidential address to 
the South African Association of Engineers on June 24, 
1903, that it would have been affectation to go outside that 
account. The Editors' thanks are, therefore, due to Mr. 
Webb for his permission to incorporate - in the chapter 
whole portions of his interesting address. They have also- 
to thank Mr. E. P. Rathbone, of the Rand Pioneers, for 
information on this subject. 

The facts brought together in the last chapter of the 
gold-mining section have been drawn from various sources, 
among which may be mentioned the Chamber of Mines, 
with the Witwatersrand Native Labour Association, and 
the Foreign Labour Importation Departments. To these 
bodies and to many individuals who have kindly given 
information that they will recognise in these pages the 
Editors* have to acknowledge their indebtedness. 

Thanks are also due to the Mayors, Town Clerks and 
others who have helped to make this brief description of 
towns and villages in the Transvaal as complete as it is. 
In a few instances in this section of the book the contri- 
butions are unsigned. But in those instances also the 
contributions have come through the municipal authorities. 
The statistics relating to Johannesburg have been furnished 
by Mr. S. E. Court, the Town Statistican. 

Especial thanks are due to numerous photographers 
who have readily placed their copyright work at the dis- 
posal of the Editors, especially Mr. Nissen of Pretoria; 
Mr. T. Lee of Barberton; Messrs. Duffus Bros, of Johannes- 
burg ; Mr. A. Landmark also of Johannesburg ; and Mr. 
L. Bernard Jensen, Belle vue East. The names of photo- 
graphers of other municipalities were not supplied in time 
for inclusion in this edition. 

List of Contributors. 

Initials on Name and Address 


9 G. Schoeman Preller, Pretoria. 

146 19 Dr. F. V. Engelenburg, Ed. Volkstem^ Pretoria. 
22 Dr. Gunning, Pretoria. 

34 et seq. Rev. C. Arthur Lane, Johannesburg. 

50 S. E. Court, Statistician, Johannesburg. 

68 E. J. Platnauer, Johannesburg. 

69 F. J. Henley, Johannesburg. 

76 L. Rayne, His Majesty's Theatre, Johannesburg. 

80 A. H. Stirratt, Sup. of Parks, Johannesburg. 

85 J' F, Cadenhead, Public Library, Johannesburg. 

92 R. T. A. Innes, Observatory, Johannesburg. 

99 E. Davies, Town Clerk, Boksburg. 

103 Rev. J. B. Knowles, Mayor of Barberton. 

105 T. J. Ross, Kaapsche Hoop. 

108 James Mackay, Town Clerk, Germiston. 

Ill H. Weakley, Ed. Heidelberg News, Heidelberg. 

114 J. D. Nesser, Mayor of Klerksdorp. 

118 F. A. Cooper, Town Clerk, Krugersdorp. 

122 Hutton Watermeyer, Town Clerk, Middelburg. 

124 Alexander G. Watt, Town Clerk, Pietersburg. 

129 W. S. V. Heskine, Town Clerk, Potchefstroom. 

132 W, H. Dobson, Town Engineer, Standerton. 

132 F. W. Bird, Government School, Standerton. 

134 M. F. Scheffer, Amersfoort. 

136 G. Maddocks, Belfast. 

137 T. M. Park, Town Clerk, Bethal. 

138 H. G. Randell, Carolina. 

139 T. G. Pollinger, Christiana. 

143 William H. Wilson, Town Clerk, Ermelo. 

145 C. B. Maartens. Town Clerk, Lichtenburg. 

147 Col. F. H. Damanr, C.B., R. M., Lydenburg. 

148 W. C. Janson, Machadodorp. 

152 W. A. Humphries, Town Clerk, Piet Retief. 

154 G. H. Matthews, Education Dept., Potgietersrust. 

^J^ J* S. Mitcham, Town Clerk, Roodepoort. 

JjS H. Kemball-Cook, R. M., Rustenburg. 


159 W. E. Williams, Schweizer-Reneke. 

161 H. Richardson, Town Clerk, Springs. 

162 T. O, Hagan, Ventersdorp. 

163 T. N. Leslie, Mayor of Vereeniging, 
165 F, M. Scheffer, Town Clerk, Volksrust. 

167 Major W, G. Bentinck, R.M., Wakkerstroom. 

168 F. W. Konig, Town Clerk, Wolmaransstad. 
170 H. Dietrich, J.P., Zeerust. 

177 H. T. Montague Bell, Johannesburg. 

196 J, A. Vaughan, R.N., Retd., Johannesburg. 

217 T. Lane Carter, Luipards Vlei. 

226 S. J. Jennings, M.A.I.M.E., Johannesburg. 

244 Ernest Williams, Johannesburg. 

255 J- G. Lawn, A.M.I.C.E., Johannesburg, 

262 W. Cullen, Dynamite Factory, Modderfontein. 

270 D. W. Rossiter, Johannesburg. 

270 Rev. C. Phillips, Johannesburg. 

272 Rev. W. Martin, D.R.C., Braamfontein. 

274 Rev. Dr. J. H. Hertz, Johannesburg. 

275 Rev. R. B, Douglas, Jeppestown. 

277 Rev. Father de Lacy, Johannesburg, 

278 Rev. Amos Burnett, Johannesburg. 
285 T. G. Ligertwood, Johannesburg. 
288 Lieut. E. A. Bradford, Johannesburg. 




The Great Trek or migration of Boers from the Cape 
Colony during 1835-6 and subsequent years, may very 
properly be regarded as the starting point in the history of 
all the Northern States, including Natal. During this 
period the Southern Colony was left by many hundreds of 
its inhabitants, who, crossing the border, founded the 
Orange Free State, Natal and subsequently the Transvaal. 
The causes which conduced to this remarkable movement 
were many, but may be summarised as a deep sense of the 
injustice of the British, of their indifference to the sufferings 
of the border-colonists, and their sympathy with the black 
races. This was engendered chiefly by the unchecked 
depredations of the native tribes, the leniency shown to the 
robber bands of Hottentots and Amakosa, who devastated 
the land, the Slachtersnek execution, the enormous official 
depreciation of the paper currency in circulation at the 
time of the annexation to Great Britain, the enfranchisement 
of the coloured races, and the unfair way in which the 
Slave Emancipation Act was carried out in South Africa. 

It is well known that, long before Livingstone 
" discovered '* the Zambesi River and its famous falls, these 
places had been visited by Boer hunters, many of whom 
left the Colony before the great expatriation took place. 
But the first organised body of ** Voortrekkers " to leave 
the Colony was composed of some fifty persons under the 
leadership of Louis Trichardt. It was soon after \Qu\fiA\s^ 
a second party, and together they teac\ve^ ^i\\fe T.qv\!c^^xn!^'^n|> 



in 1836. The majority were murdered by natives, and the 
survivors eventually made their way to Delagoa Bay, and 
thence to Natal. The second party, under Hermanns 
Potgieter, reached the depopulated regions north of the 
Orange during the same year, and was followed by various 
other parties each under the leadership of some prominent 
man. Their first care was to obtain a cession of the land 
between the Vet and Vaal Rivers — part of the present Orange 
River Colony territory — from the Bechuana chief, who only 
partially occupied it. This was secured at the price of 
some cattle, and on condition of their affording him protec- 
tion from his foes, the Amatabele. 

The emigrants, fancying they had reached a country 
suitable for settlement, scattered themselves with their 
flocks and herds over the wide ranges of open unoccupied 
country. Their fancied security, however, was not of long 
duration. Two large marauding parties of Amatabele sent 
out by the dreaded Moselikatse, surprised and massacred 
several detached parties of farmers. The remainder, 
dreading a similar fate, hurriedly assembled and formed a 
" laager " of their waggons, within which they placed the 
women and such of their belongings as it could contain, 
while Potgieter, with a mounted commando, awaited the 
approach of the enemy outside. On the 29th of October, 
1836, they were attacked by a large Matabele impi, and 
after a fierce struggle gained a signal victory, but were, at 
the same time, deprived of nearly all their cattle and sheep. 

Meanwhile, other emigrants had arrived on the scene 
from the Colony, and some of these under Pieter Retief, 
now crossed the Drakensberg into the present Natal, while 
most of the others under Gerrit Maritz and Potgieter, 
decided to push further north. 

On the broad veld, rolling away on either side of the 
railway which bears the modern traveller northward, far 
from the busier haunts of man, still dwell descendants of 
these pioneers who first carried the white man's burden 
into the land which the visitor enters on crossing the Vaal 
River ; the land which he probably knows primarily as one 
of gold and precious stones. 

But little they knew and less ftie^ t^c^^fc^ o\ 'Cas^Si 


things, who first trod its virgin soil. If fate or fortune 
had decreed that the reader could have crossed the Vaal 
River a little more than half a century ago, he might have 
seen their white-tilted laagers of waggons and tents, halting 
along its banks or fording its grey waters, on their march 
northwards into an unknown land beyond. The silent 
panorama of hill and dale, now opening on every side, 
teemed with Nature's myriad forms of life, including 
springbok (in such vast droves as often to stop the emigrant 


caravan), wildebeest, zebra, and other animals of a more 
ferocious order. Man only was wanting; for the preceding 
decade had witnessed his almost total annihilation at the 
hands of the savage Amatabele, who then held supreme 
sway in the far north, contenting themselves with occasional 
raids on the fugitive nomads who lingered in the mountain- 
fastnesses to east and south. 

At the time when Relief crossed into Natal, Dingaan, 

successor to the ferocious and bloodthirsty Tejaka, claimed 

ibe whole territory from the Drakensberg to the sea, as far 

aorth as the Umzimvuha or St. John's Rivet. The greater 


part of this country was depopulated and the rest but 
thinly occupied by native tribes who had been almost 
obliterated by Tsjaka. A few English traders, living at the 
Port, and some mission families were all the Europeans 
who occupied the land. Retief was cordially welcomed by 
them and encouraged to interview Dingaan and obtain 
permission to settle with his followers in the country. This 
he at once proceeded to do, and the Zulu monarch agreed 
to grant the desired permission on condition that certain 
cattle stolen from him by a neighbouring chief, were 
restored by the Boers. After this had been effected the 
great body of emigrants in three divisions, with nearly a 
thousand waggons and great flocks, began their descent of 
the mountains and spread themselves over the country. 
Everything seemed promising for the final negotiations with 
the Zulu king, and accompanied by seventy horsemen with 
some thirty servants, Retief once more visited Dingaan in 
his stronghold, Ungunginhlovo. A document was prepared 
(the original may be seen in the Pretoria Museum) to which 
Dingaan affixed his mark, witnessed by the most prominent 
of his indunas or advisers, ceding to the emigrants all the 
land between the Tugela and the Umzimvubu northwards, 
" as far as it was in his possession " and from the Drakens- 
berg to the sea, " as their everlasting possession.*' 

Completely thrown off their guard by the friendly 
attitude of the king, the emigrants consented to an invitation 
to witness a military display by some of the Zulu regiments, 
and it was while so engaged that every one of the party was 
butchered in cohd blood at a sign from the treacherous savage. 

As a sequel to this, Dingaan despatched an impi of 
10,000 to 12,000 warriors to fall on the scattered Boer 
encampments along the banks of the Tugela and Bushman's 
Rivers. Simultaneously these encampments were attacked 
in the darkness of the night, and men, women and children 
ruthlessly massacred before they were well aware of the 
dreaded foe. Altogether 41 men, 56 women and 185 
children with about 250 coloured servants were thus 
barbarously slaughtered. On the Bushman's Rivet.^ •a&^ksft. 
day advanced, the farmers formed a \aat^'et ^\A ^^^^^ *^^ 
savages, and at Jast beat off the Zm\us ^VVJa. ^x^aJ^V^'s.'s*- 


A first attempt under Maritz, who had joined his 
kinsmen in Natal, and Piet Uijs, to punish the Zulus, 
proved futile, and not until the arrival of one of their most 
intrepid leaders, Andries Pretorius, assisted by Landman, 
did they succeed in utterly breaking the Zulu power. The 
Zulu army was routed, and at the royal kraal were dis- 
covered ihe remains of the unfortunate Retief and his party, 
about eleven months after they had met their tragic death. 

On his return, Pretorius learned that a British mili- 
tary detachment had taken possession of the Port. The 
object of this occupation was to stop supplies of arms 
and ammunition reaching the Boers, so as to prevent theni 
from setting up an independent government of their own. 
These troops, however, were eventually withdrawn, and a 
period of peaceful development ensued, during which the 
Boers organised a proper system of government, built several 
of the older towns of Natal, and established peace with the 
natives. In 1841, the Governor of Cape Colony, by 
proclamation, announced the intention of Her Majesty's 
Government to resume the occupation, and a protracted 
armed struggle was the result, which eventually ended in 
the submission, under certain conditions, of those farmers 
who remained in Natal. Most of them, however, quitted the 
country to join those whom we left crossing the Vaal river 
five years previously. 

On the almost bloodless conquest of the Transvaal 
followed a brief period of settlement, during which some of 
its oldest towns were established, its several communities 
united, a temporary system of government organised, and 
recognition of its complete independence by Great Britain 
secured under the Sand River Convention of 1852. The 
emigrant leaders who brought about these results — 
Potgieter, Pretorius, and Maritz — were shortly afterwards 
succeeded by several younger men, whose main endeavours 
were directed toward the formal establishment of Constitu- 
tional Government. Five years after the signing of the 
Convention this was attained ; and M. W. Pretorius, a 
son of the pioneer leader, was elected first President of the 
new S. A. Republic. Then succeeded a " Sturm und 
Drang *' period, chieAy characterised by mot^ or less serious 


native insurrections, internecine dissensions, and the strife 
of individuals and factions for place and power, culminating 
in the election of President Burgers {1872). Under his 
government the Delagoa Bay railway policy, which had 
been the dream of Potgieter and others before him, was 
actively initiated ; and the Lydenburg and Zoutpansberg 
goldfields first came into prominence. President Burgers 
visited Europe in 1875, and concluded a railway treaty 
with Portugal ; but the linking of the Transvaal with its 


natural outlet to the sea was only accomplished many years 
afterwards, by his successor, Paul Kruger. 

After the establishment of the Republic, and prior to 
1899, hardly a year passed without witnessing some native 
trouble and consequent defensive or punitive measures on 
the part of the whites. This fact is often lQ=.t ^v'^Vx (AnJokki, 
the wide difference is remarked between t\ie 6.e.N A-s^^ossox "A. 


the country's agricultural and mineral resources. On his 
return from Europe, Burgers had at once to face the 
Sekukuni Rebellion ; and on the 12th of July, 1877, there 
followed the first annexation of the Republic to Great 
Britain, a coup d^iiat to which he submitted under protest. 

During the British interregnum — which was otherwise 
identified with the prosecution and successful conclusion of 
the Sekukuni trouble and the inauguration of various 
changes — two Boer deputations were sent to England to 
plead for the retrocession, but quite without avail. The 
close of 1880 witnessed an armed struggle for independence. 
This first Transvaal Anglo-Boer war resulted in the Con- 
vention of Pretoria (1881), eventually superseded by the 
London Convention (1884), and the restoration of the 

Wars with native tribes form the chief events during 
the period immediately succeeding this restoration. To- 
wards the close of 1885, the main reef was discovered on 
ihe Witwatersrand ; early the following year nine farms 
were proclaimed as public diggings. Other important dis- 
coveries were made, and there ensued an epoch of trans- 
mutation and development so rapid and far-reaching that it 
certainly stands unique in the world's history. Once its 
vast natural riches had been proved, capital poured into the 
country, and men flocked to the " fields " from all quarters 
of the globe, constituting a great cosmopolitan community 
totally distinct from, and with aspirations widely divergent 
from those of the older population, which the newcomers 
were soon to outnumber entirely. The veld under which 
the main reef had lain undisturbed so long was trans- 
formed in a few years into a populous district, spreading 
itself along the entire forty miles of reef. A strong 
impetus was then imparted to every branch of com- 
merce and industry, all of which seemed to have attained to 
a zenith of prosperity within barely two decades after 
the first sod was turned. 

But there were, nevertheless, gathering together the 
elements of a cataclysm, which was soon to convulse this 
sub-continent and, in President Kruger's prophetic words, 
to stagger humanity.'* But here this brief resumi of the 



evolution of a nation— whose scattered members still dwell 
just beyond the horizon on either side of the railway track 
— may well be terminated. 

What followed — the events which led up to the 
Jameson Raid, the Three Years' War, and Vereeniging on 
the Vaal River — these are matters of contemporary 
knowledge. G. S. P. 



Flintslone irf»pi':rri':rjt'. ;if': \;i;'l f// :.;»•/': ',"Jzri fo *r>'i in 
the neigh h>o:jrri''yxl of J 'r'ltor i;i. /-.r.'.'rr.? //'^r/.r.j^-; a*i 
round the tov/n if/, *o ;.f '//'•, fr.': ;if,*.'j ..-y ;jr.'l t:..:.*:rAi ;'r,- 
portance of t:,*i ':. .*r.' V J r»': f*-:f.:t,:, of /'.r.*: ',;«?•,': •rJi^.^ 
OD Mcintj^'-. Ko;y ji r...- '//':r,'/'//,.'.;^ *-,'-, ',^;,.*;i, '/^.,^,:,'/, 

'Hocid tfkir't, the lfM»%r4;t.. 

• ** ■ 'a 






origin, who, just before the great trek, devastated the 
country. But no Phoenician, Chaldaean, or even- Arabic 
descent is claimed for their town by the present inhabitants. 
Its existence is the result not of economic necessity nor 
metallurgical circumstances, but of the political consolida- 
tion of the South African Republic. This came about 
shortly after the Sand River Convention (1852), when the 
different inter-independent Boer communities, centering in 
the towns of Potchefstroom, Lydenburg, Schoemansdal 
and Rustenburg, were crystallised into a homogeneous 
whole. It was found essential to have a capital easily ac- 
cessible for the whole State ; and, as neither of the above- 
named towns answered this purpose, the offer of the then 
President, M. W. Pretorius — owner of the farm on which 
the capital was laid out — was accepted by the Volksraad, 
and the name ** Pretoria " was given to it as a complimen- 
tary tribute to the donor. The Boers, in this instance, 
again proved to be sagacious townfounders. An abundant 
water supply, fertile and easy soil, gently sloping ground, 
pleasant climate and agreeable surroundings, ensure for the 
Transvaal capital a healthy, prosperous and lasting life. 

Several years elapsed before the actual acceptance of 
President Pretorius's offer obtained practical results; for 
the administration of the State, however rudimentary it 
may have been, had taken root at Potchefstroom, then the 
chief commercial centre of the country, where one could 
walk on market days between long rows of elephants* tusks, 
valuable hides, skins, and ostrich feathers : the spolia of 
intrepid Boer hunters, who knew all about the secrets of 
the Central African continent long before Livingstone 
** discovered " them. 

01 -"« At length the inertia of the Potchefstroom bureaucrats 
was conquered by a simple plan. One propitious night the 
Government printing press (then the only printing press in 
the country) and other material necessary for the issue of 
official documents, were '*by order" loaded on an ox waggon 
and removed to Pretoria. Not the sword, but a waggon- 
load of typographical paraphernalia, turned the scale in 
Pretoria*s favour. This happened in the eatl^ ^Y?w\»\fcj5. <^S. *(^^ 
last century. 


The infant life of Pretoria was uneventful. Those 
who remember it describe the miniature capital as consist- 
ing of a straggling group of white-washed, thatched-roofed, 
more or less spacious, cottages, separated by rose-hedges, 
and inhabited by a busy little community, in which English- 
men, Hollanders and Germans were numerously repre- 
sented, many of them cultured and rich in social accomplish- 
ments ; and although a European mail reached the town on 
the banks of the A pies River only once a month, people 
were exceedingly well posted in all matters of oversea 
politics and general intelligence. An occasional sitting of 
the Volksraad, or the quarterly Nachtmaal (Communion 
Service attended by the rural population en masse) varied 
the monotony of Pretoria's toujours perdrix existence. Even 
the sensational event of a short ** civil war " was not with- 
held from it, and is kept in memory by the name 
" Blood street," in the southern part of the town, where a 
few rifle shots were exchanged between the opposing politi- 
cal groups with the result of *' one man wounded ! '* 

In 1872 came President Burgers. Then followed the 
Pilgrim's Rest gold discoveries, the Sekukuni War and, in 
1877, Sir Theophilus Shepstone with the annexation. The 
Delagoa Bay railway connection — already decided upon by 
the Volksraad, and surveyed by Portuguese engineers — was 
pigeonholed, and the country's prospects became stagnant. 
Pretoria's importance then centred itself in its little garrison 
and small official world. The hunting trade had worn itself 
out ; the Pilgrim's Rest fields collapsed, and unrest increased 
amongst the inhabitants of the State. At the end of 1880 
war broke out, martial law was proclaimed, and the towns- 
people were quartered in the military camp at the upper 
end of the capital, which had been invested by a Boer 
commando. The " siege " lasted one hundred days, and 
several sharp encounters took place on the southern and 
eastern outskirts. In the oldest part of our cemetery may 
still be seen the graves of many a British soldier ** killed in 
action." On the 8th of August, 1881, the Peace Conven- 
tion was signed at Pretoria, and again the people turned 
their eyes to the east, where the harbour of Louren9o 
Marques held out not only the shortest and cheapest 



railway connection with the sea, but also deliverance from 
the highly exacting customs policy exercised by Natal and 
Cape Colony. In 1884 a railway concession was granted 
to a Netherlands syndicate, afterwards known as the 
"Z.A.S.M." ; but several years passed by before the works 
were started. The famous MacMurdo difficulty arose, 
which developed into an international complication ; and as 
soon as tbePortugueseGovernment had (1889) taken posses- 
sion of the line, already built by MacMurdo as far as the 



Transvaal border, President Kruger ordered the immediate 
commencement of the works in the Transvaal territory. In 
1895 the first train steamed into Pretoria. 

Meanwhile, the development of the Witwaterstand as 
a gold-producino district had resulted in a sudden expan- 
sionofthe State's administrative body, as centred within 
the capital. The original thatched-roofed building, which for 
so many years had housed the Volksraad and the Executive, 
was replaced during 1892 by the present Gave.t-a.'ossK^, 
Building. Large railway works vjete a\%o«teK,'«&, *s.^"^ 


as barracks for the tiny standing army, and other public 
institutions, such as schools, hospitals, a State printing 
establishment, a zoological garden, a museum, etc., arose 
in quick succession. The prosperity of the town increased 
gradually, keeping pace with the general development of 
the State. 

Visitors will not expect to find in a book of this character 
any details of the Anglo-Boer War. It will suffice if we 
remind readers that on June 5, 1900, Lord Roberts' 
troops entered the capital, and that two years later Pretoria 
again witnessed a Peace Conference between representatives 
of the Boer people and of the British Government. This 
Conference terminated in the Treaty of Vereeniging, which 
was concluded on May 31, 1902. 

.Pretoria bad passed through some rudimentary forms 
of municipal rule before the war, but only in 1903 was full 
local self-government granted to the town, of which it is 
proving itself quite worthy by an honest and intelligent 
administration. The latest feature of Pretoria's development 
is its expansion into many thriving suburbs, which — once 
the inter-communal traffic is established — will tend to make 
it one of South Africa's most interesting places of abode. 

F. V. E. 

The Town. 

The population of Pretoria is about 35,000, and the 
town's elevation above the sea level 4,500 feet. Pretoria 
is the commercial centre of the northern part of the Trans- 
vaal and the principal seat of the country's administration. 
Its distance from Delagoa Bay is 350 miles, from Durban 
511 miles, from Port Elizabeth 740 miles, and from Cape- 
town 1,041. 

Public Buildings, — Most of these are to be found around 
and near the Church Square, which derives its name from a 
Dutch Reformed Church, which until recently stood in its 
centre. It was removed in consequence of the Government 
having purchased before the war Church and Square from 
the original proprietors. 

The Government Buildings occupy the south-western 



part of the square and were erected in 1892 at a cost of 
^^250,000, They contain the offices of the Lieutenant 
Governor and several Departments, as well as the meeting 
hall of the Legislative Assembly, to which the vestibule 
leads. When the erection of these buildings was decided 
on, provision was made only for a ground floor, this being 
thought appropriate for the needs of the time. But during 
the building operations it was found advisable to enlarge 
the space, and an upper floor was added to the plans. 


In 1898 another Government Building was erected 
behind the first one, specially adapted for the Deeds Office 
and the Surveyor General's Department. 

The Law Courts occupy the north-western corner of 
Church Square and were completed in 1899. On the 
occupation of Pretoria by Lord Roberts these courts were 
used as a military hospital, and only after peace had been 
made, were they for the first time formally given to their 
proper destination. They contain a spacious salU des pas 
perdus and three balls for the Supreme Cou^x! ^ wa'asKi's- 


Between !the above-named buildings the Post and 
Telegraph Office ia situated. The erection of larger and 
more suitable premises is in contemplation. 

The Church Square iurther contains several Banks, 
a theatre and many institutions of a commercial character,' 
The municipal ad mi n is t rati on has taken in hand the 
artistic ornamentation of the square, and a monumental 
fountain, similar to one now adorning one of the promenades 
of Glasgow, Scotland, has been presented by Mr. Samuel 


Marks, who, some years ago presented the Kruger Statue, 
the pedestal of which was recently removed from Church 
Square to a park opposite the cemeteries, whilst some of the 
bronze figures, forming part of the statue, are lo be found 
at the Brompton Barracks, Chatham, England. 

The town contains, besides the buildings already 
mentioned, several churches, more than one of which may 
lay claim to pleasing and interesting architectural features. 
Tbe cathedral of the Church of England is dedicated to St. 


Alban; the largest churoh — at the corner of Koch and 
Vermeulen Streets, is that of the United Dutch congrega- 
tion ; the Roman Catholic congregation own some extensive 
buildings, including a large school, to the south-west of the 
Square ; the Jewish Synagogue, recently completed, is to 
be found not far from the central square along Market 
Street North. Then there are church buildings representing 
the Wesleyan community, two other Dutch congregations, 
the Baptist, the German- Lutheran and several other 

The street from Church Square, leading westward, 
passes the dwelling-house of the late President Kruger, 
situated opposite the church where he used to offer his 
devotions. This house now belongs to his children, and 
may one day be converted into a Kruger Museum. 

A little further are the cemeteries, in one of which the 
grave of Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, grandson 
to Queen Victoria, is to be found. Prince Ct\'c\'i',\'K!v 
died in Pretoria from fever in 1900. One ci^ ti^ft a.^i'iWMKi^ 


cemeteries contains the graves of the late Transvaal 
Presidents, that of Paul Kruger included. The street from 
Church Square, leading northward, brings the visitor to the 
Zoological Gardens and the Museum. 

Church Street East passes the principal shops and 
warehouses of the town, and leads across the Apies River 
to the residential suburbs Arcadia, Sunnyside, Brooklyn, 
Fairview and Bryntirion, the latter being principally laid 
out for residences of our State officials. The dwelling-house 


for the Lieutenant-Governor, which reminds one of the 
Cape Dutch style, will soon be finished. 

To the south of the town a road leads to the sources of 
the Apies River, which provide the capital with plenty of 
pure water, The south-western part is chiefly occupied by 
Military Barracks, the Hospital and the Prison Buildings. 
Further away, on the hills, are to be found the Cantonments 
of the Garrison. 

The Public Library, in Church Street East, possesses 
Mn I'ateresting coUection of books and maps on South Africa. 



The town is still in a state of transition, and every 
year changes and improvements may be noticed. The 
Streets and houses are lighted by electricity, provided by 
the municipal authorities. Electric tramways are in 

01 ".Gradually the country around Pretoria is being filled ' 
with houses and gardens, for miles away from the centre. 
Special mention may be made of the Wonderboom, a large 
wild figtree, situated on the northern slope of the Magalies- 

bergen and accessible through a fine "poort," through 
which the railway to Pielersburg has been built. The tree 
has grown to its present vast size owing to its heavy wide 
spreading branches gravitating to the ground and there 
taking root. From the newly rooted branches fresh trunks 
have grown, ontil a large clump of trees are connected with 
the parent stem. 

The Delagoa Bay line runs in an eastern direction and 
passes many miles of pleasant country before reaching the 
■"high veld." Y.N."^. 


Transvaal Museum, Pretoria. 
The Transvaal Museum was started on a very small 
scale in 1S92, mainly through the initiative of Dr. Leyds, 
then State Secretary of the South African Republic, The 
few articles brought together at that time were housed in a 
small room on the top floor of the Government Buildings, but 
this place soon became too small, and the collection was 
transferred to the Old Market Hall, where it remained 
till igo2. The Museum is a Government Institution, and 

derives no income whatsoever from the public. A new and 
commodious buitding was started by the late, and com- 
pleted and equipped by the present. Government, the 
building costing about £"25,000 and the fittings over 
;f 14,000. There is a Board of Management, nominated by 
the Government. 

The main object the managers have in view is the 
collection of all that is connected with South African 
History, Natural History, Ethnography, Art, etc. The 
collection ol mounted Mammals is, as yet, far from com- 


plete, but Dearly all known species are present in the skin 
collection ; and as soon as time and space are available 
others will be mounted. Among the rarest specimens must 
be mentioned a very large white rhino cow, presented by 
Mr. Carl Jeppe. This large mammal is nearly extinct, and 
only by extreme care on the part of the Natal Govern- 
ment have 8 or lo specimens survived to the present day. 

The collection of South African birds comprises some 
2,700 specimens. 

The insect collection comprises some 100,000 speci- 
mens, the orders of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Hem- 
iptera being very well represented ; the South African 
Rhopalocera are nearly complete. 

The botanical collection consists of about 5,000 speci- 
mens..; of which about 1,000 are native? of the Transvaal^ 
the others South African. 

The ethnographical and historical departments contain 
invaluable treasures ; the ethnographical being enriched by 
the fine collection of Bushman stones collected during a 
lifetime by the late Mr. George Leith in all parts of South 
Africa. Bibles, calendars, day books, etc., of old Voor- 
trekkers are among the numerous relics of past ages. 

The first Honorary Director was Dr. G. H. Breyer ; 
since 1897 ^^' J* ^^' ^- Gunning has been the Director. 

Zoological Gardens, Pretoria. 

The Zoological Gardens are placed under the same 
Board of Management as the Museum, although their 
financial administration is on entirely different lines. 
Whereas the Museum is a Government Department, under 
the Colonial Secretary, the Zoological Gardens only receive 
a grant in aid from the Government, which is supplemented 
by voluntary contributions yearly subscriptions and pro- 
ceeds of the entrance gates. 

The collection of living animals was started in 1899^ 
on a very modest scale in the backyard of the Market Hall 
on Market Square. Soon, however, the few square yards 
available there were too small •, and d\ixv[\^V\\^^'^^\^'cc\ss^'Csv^ 


of 1900 the nucleus of the collection was brought down to 
" Rus in U-rbe," where the present Museum and Zoo are 
situated. As the country was in an unsettled state for 
more than two years but little progress was possible in the 
beginning ; but since the declaration of peace in 1902 the 
work has been taken in hand in earnest, and a fair collection 
of animals from all parts of the world has been brought 
together. The main object here, as in the Museum, is to 
collect South African species first, but it is found more 
■easy to obtain animals from other parts of the world than 
South African antelopes. 

The area at present in use is about 10 acres, but 19 
acres are enclosed, and a further 16^ acres have lately been 
handed over for future extensions of the Gardens. 

The climate seems very favourable for the breeding of 
antelopes and deer ; no less than 9 species of deer and four 
of antelopes, having bred during last year, have all reared 
their young. 

The office of Director of the Zoological Gardens and 
the Museum is at present combined in the same person. 
J. \V. B. G. 




Diamonds are next in importance to gold among the 
chief products of the Transvaal, and the Premier Diamond 
Mine is one of the wonders of modern discovery. It was 
an untilled field in 1902, and is now a thriving centre of 
industry, some twenty miles north-east of JPretoria, with a 
railway station " on the premises." The railway journey 
from Pretoria is not without interest, for the line passes to- 
the south of the capital, through what are called the 
" Pretoria Diamond Fields," containing both ancient and 
modern workings payable in a small way, but quite in- 
significant compared with the thousands of " claims "^ 
controlled by the Premier Company. 

Starting from Pretoria by the Delagoa Bay route, the 
traveller skirts the pleasant suburb of Arcadia. Rissik 
is the first station passed, after which the scenery is bare 
and brown, save for an occasional blockhouse, a few kopjes 
and a farmstead, until Koedoespoori is reached. Proceeding 
thence, a glimpse of the wide veld may be seen northwards^ 
through a kloof or pass, from which the last- mentioned 
township takes its name. On the other side (south) of the 
line are plantations and farmhouses. Then the line crosses 
a stream and passes some native huts, after which the 
" mealie patch " type of agriculture comes into evidence. 
The range of hills north of the line form part of the famous 
Magaliesberg range. A considerable amount of forestry 
has been in progress hereabouts, and south of the line great 
patches of trees, about ten years old, present themselves. 

Then we come to Hatherleyy with its pretty homesteads- 
and orchards, extortionate Asiatic fruit - vendors, and 
inquisitive native children. South of the station is 
Hatherley Distillery, which used to have a monopoly for 
producing spirituous liquor. The British Go^^x^^-wskc^, 
gave the owners a large sum to end. tVi^ rcvox^a^c^^ ^•ax^^'^ici^^ 


closed down the bus ness \ ar ous op nions are 
f eely exp essed as to be w sdom of b s arraage- 
ment the apparent effec bas been o transfer the 
monopo y to Eu opean mporters and o destroy an 
mpo tant local 

a kloof, 

' by e side of 


to grow 
There is very 
little of any 
other sort of 
farming. A steep incline follows, and to the south of the 
line is the famous Diatnond Hill batlle-field. Northward, 
as we reach Van der Menve station, are several typical 
ve/J roads; showing how independent the settlers are of 


any defined track. If in rainy weather one track is bad 
the transport rider turns off on to the grass, there being no 
hedges, ditches, or fencing, and thus half-a-dozen veld 
roads may sometimes be seen side by side for considerable 
distances. After leaving Van der Merwe a number of pre- 
sumably self-sown mimosa bushes are noticeable, whicb 
thrive on diamondiferous soil when other trees will not 
grow. Most of these trees have a very scrubby appearance^^ 
but a few are well grown. The railway curves a good 
deal here, to ease the incline, so that close by on the left 
hand may be seen the station which was passed a mile 
away on the right. Passing tree plantations both sides of 
the line and more diamond prospecting works, the train 
draws up at Ray ton, a new station opened early in 1905, 
as a junction for the short line to " Cullinan." At present 
(June, 1905) Rayton consists of a few tents, half-a-dozen 
tin shanties used as stores, post office, etc., and some huts 
built and thatched in native style. When one thinks that 
Johannesburg was no bigger than this in 1886, and minus 
a railway, it would be rash to doubt that Rayton may 
become the centre of numerous diamond propositions in 
several years time. Opposite Rayton Post Office, about 
400 yards to the north of the line, is a small mine shaft 
belonging to the Montrose Diamond Mining Company, 
whose ** claims " extend all the way back to Van der 
Merwe Station. Behind the Post Office some 600 yards 
to the south of the line is another shaft on the property of 
the Kaalfontein Diamond Mining Company. The Schuller 
Mine is also in the vicinity. At present these and other 
diamond mining estates are comparatively small concerns. 
The branch line from Rayton to Cullinan is about six miles 
long, and was laid with very little trouble on the veld, up 
hill and down hill, just as the land happens to be. The 
country hereabouts is in some parts like a Canadian prairie, 
and in other parts like a Yorkshire moor. Trees are being 
extensively planted, and some are already " grown up.'*' 
Near Cullinan Station a busy scene meets the eye, for we 
are in the midst of numerous tents and corrugated iron 
sheds, while herds of grazing cattle intimate the possibilvt^ 
of fresh milk. A great dam, iuW ol telws*^ l\wi\ ^^ ^vaxsNss^^ 



washing process compels attention, for the weight of mud 
burst the dam in July, 1905, and caused considerable 
inconvenience. Numerous children playing about under 
the eyes of gossiping matrons proclaim the married workers' 
quarters. The railway station is named after the original 
promoter and first General Manager of the Premier 
Diamond Mine. The story of his find sounds like a chapter 
from romantic fiction. The farm called " Elandsfontein 85 " 
was in the market. Being in the vicinity of other diamond 


propositions, it was not unlikely that diamonds might be 
found on the farm, and therefore a fancy price (^56,000) 
was put upon it by the owner, 'lo suggestions that an 
inspection or survey of the farm was desirable, the answer 
was always " No ; take it or leave it, and the price must be 
paid in hard cash." None of tlie Rand lords would buy it 
on those risky terms; but Mr. Cullinan, having some 
knowledge of the land formation at Kimbeiley and 
complete confidence in his own judgment, determined to 
huy that farm, which, with the co-operation of a few 


friends, he was able to do. The capital raised was ;^8o,ooo, 
which has been returned to the shareholders several 
times over in dividends within the first three years' occupa- 
tion of the property, to say nothing of the amount received 
by the sale of shares. When it was known that an unusual 
quantity of diamonds had been obtained from alluvial 
workings, the ruling powers took cognisance of the find, 
and passed a special law which reserved to the Government 
60 per cent, of the profits of all diamond mines which were 
over 100 claims in extent (a *claim* is 30 feet square). As 
no other mine in the Transvaal had a "pipe" equal to 100 
claims, this was clearly special legislation, and as such, it 
has been very much criticised. 

The old Transvaal mining law gave the discoverer of a 
diamond mine a selected one-eighth of the area. The 
public could then step in and peg off all the remaining 
area. This would lead to a repetition of Kimberley's 
experience : the ground of one claim caving in on another 
and above all, the rush of diamonds threatening to ruin the 
market, and make diamond mining unprofitable. (Hence 
Kimberley's amalgamation of interests.) Accordingly, the 
present Government said — We will be *the public' to take 
these remaining claims, in order to prevent such a disaster 
(at Kimberley it proved, unquestionably, a disaster). 
Mines are allowed first to deduct the cost of equipment, 
and in the case of the Premier Mine the equipment has 
been lavish. 

If this had been done uniformly, there would have 
been less complaint. None of the other diamond mines of 
the Transvaal pay anything out of their profits to the State, 
whereas the Premier Mine pays a very large sum to the 
Treasury, and there is considerable controversy among 
members of the legislature as to what should be done with 
the money. 

The Premier Mine measures up into 3,500 claims. 

Geological. — The geological formation of the Pretoria 
diamond fields was well described in a paper contributed to 
the South African Association for the Advancement o€ 
Science at its meeting in 1904., b^ \I)t. Yojw-asX.ow -asv^ 
Mr. Hall 



The formation is found between the Dolomite and the 
Waterberg Sandstone. It vj composed of quartzite and 
shale, with intrusive sheets of diabase and other allied 
igneous rocks. The quartzites are mostly fine-grained 
rocks of a pale yellowish or sometimes white colour. The 
diamond-bearing ground is found in what are called " pipes.'* 
They are the vent-holes of extinct volcanoes, and vary very 
greatly in size. Their depths are unfathomed. The Kaal- 
fontein pipe is about 290 feet in diameter^, while that of the 
Premier Mine is an irregular oval about one-third of a mile 
broad by half a mile long. The latter has been probed to a 
depth of over 1,000 feet, and the diamond-bearing matter is 
found all the way down. The ground passed through is 
much the same in all the boreholes of the Premier Mine — a 
foot or so of surface soil ; then three or four feet of *' Red '* 
ground, frequently mixed with sand, gravel and boulders ; 
several feet more of "Yellow" ground, and then the famous 
" Blue " ground which is generally looked for in diamond 

The accompanying photograph of the present workings 
will help the reader to understand the work that has been 
done so far. A huge hole has been dug 350,000 square 
yards in surface extent. The top soil has been carted 
away and treated, with the result that diamonds to the 
extent of more than a million carats have already been 
found, and there are hundreds of thousands of loads of 
sorted soil waiting in great heaps for further treatment. 
The plan of working is to take out all the diamondiferous 
earth and rocks so far as it goes. The limit is called the 
** wall *' of the pipe. The first excavation was about twenty 
feet deep, tested over the whole surface of the claims area. 
When that section was all taken out a lower section of 
another twenty feet was excavated. Our photograph shpws 
the beginning of the third section. A trench about thirty 
feet deep has been dug out, and this will be enlarged in 
every direction until the excavators reach the quartzite 
wall of the pipe. In some diamond pipes diamondiferous 
ground is hard, but that of the Premier pipe is soft and 
easily pulverised. On the south-west, svd^ o^ \)Cifc ^^i^-w:^^^ 
•workings the wall of the pipe is a\trios\.Net\\c^>^^^'^^^^ 



bewildering to think of the buried treasure in a hole one 
and-a-half miles in circumference, by an ascertained deptb 
of a quarter of a mile. The diamonds found in the Premier 
pipe are of all sizes, shades and values, but unaccompanied 
by any great quantity of other precious stones. The 
average value per carat is 27/-, and the average yield is one 
carat per load of earth. It costs 3/- per load to dig and 
treat, and when the new machinery is in working order, by 
the end of 1905, the staff will be able to handle S,ooo loads 

per day. That works out at a profit of nearly two millions 
sterling jjer annum, of which the Government claims 60 per 
cent. The profits accruing to the Government in 1905 
amount to £"550,000. So large an output means much 
mechanical engineering work, several thousand native 
labourers and a large managerial staff. The extensive 
tnachinery is mostly of British manufacture and of modern 
coastractioa. Visitors will doubtless pa^ ps-^^icular atten- 



tion to that which has been lately imported, but we may 
briefly describe the various processes, which are for the 
most part automatic. First of all, the trucks that have 
been filled with about 16 cubic feet of igneous soil are 
hauled to the bridge of the headgear by a stout capstan and 
wire rope, tilting their contents as they pass into large 
gratings, through which the stuff passes into fan feeders that 
conduct it to the crushing rollers. From the rollers the 
crushed soil falls on to feed elevators, which distribute it to 

the washing pans. These pans are placed one above 
another. All the stuff goes into the upper pans 
first. The ^heavy diamonJiferous particles sink to 
the bottom, and the lighter particles pass away with 
the water in the lower pans and so on. The "con- 
centrates " are removed in locked trucks to the " pulsators," 
which automatically sort out the diamond particles. 
The haulage tracks and water supply pipes are shown 
on the next page. There is indeed a <:»ttsi.4fc\'aidve. 



amount of hand sorting done with much skill by little black 
boys in the open air, but the more important sorting is 
done by white men in a well lighted room. Sometimes 
diamonds present themselves in the open workings^ 
especially if they are of unusual size ; and there is a rule of 
the Company that a percentage of the value of each 
diamond so found shall be paid to the finder, if he brings 
it at once to the foreman of his gang. The famous 
^' Cullinsin ' diamond was discovered that way, and was 
dug out with a penknife. The result to the finder was 
;^2,ooo. The generosity of the Premier Company to its 
servants is well known, and no difficulty is experienced in 
getting all the labour that is required. 

It may be of interest to mention that the diamonds 
when found are very rough and dirty, in fact they look very 
unlike diamonds. Their first journey is to Johannesburg, 
where they are cleaned. Then they go to Messrs. 
Neumann, well-known diamond, nierjchants in London, 
which is their recognised market. The transportation of 
the CuUinan diamond, worth over half a million of money, 
was a responsibility that few cared to risk, so the manage- 
ment wrapped it up as a simple parcel and sent it by post ! 

A large volume of water is required for the washing 
processes of a diamond mine ; and that is the chief obstacle 
that the Premier managers have to contend with. They 
have purchased large tracts of land adjoining their 
original farm, whence they can draw water to collect 
into dams. One large dam near the mine will hold 
250,000,000 gallons of water. Once the water is in the dam 
it is an easy matter to conduct it to the washing gear ; but 
the getting of the water is the great difficulty. 

Visitors will be struck with the completeness of the 
arrangements about the Premier Mine for the comfort of 
the workers. There are no shops, only one large store 
conducted by someone in whom the directors have confidence. 
This position of things is sometimes designated asamonopoiy, 
but the object of the management was to lessen facilities 
for illicit diamond trading. The directors safeguard the 
interests of employees by limiting the storekeeper's ^r<Al\si 
a given percentage on the actual v/VioVesaXe co^X.^^^^^^'^^^- 



One large building serves for Ihe combioed purposes of'' 
School, Town Hall and Theatre. About a hundred children 
attend the day school. Presbyterian services are regularly 
held by a resident minister, and Anglicans are proposing to 
build a church. The present football fields are probably the 
most valuable in the world, for they occupy part of the 
surface of the diamond pipe. All the world is interested in 
the Premier Mine just now because of the great Cullinan 
diamond, although very few people could make use of it.j 

! constantly being found of from 20 _ 
:arats in size, and in June, 1905, one wasJ 
picked up of 489^ carats. Several fine stones bebweena 
200 and 400 carats in weight have been found, and it isl 
expected that many large stones of from 10 to 20 carats 
will be revealed in the huge heaps of large granules that 
have been exposed to the crumbling action of the sun and 
air. The treasures of the Premier are inexhaustible. C.A.L. 



Before and Since the War. 

Of history Johannesburg has little, save what belongs 
to the discovery and getting of gold (which is dealt with in 
later sections of this handbook) and the necessary pro- 
Tisioning of the army of workers who are engaged in that 
industry. The commercial enterprise — whereby men, 
material, machinery, foodstuffs, clothing, domestic furniture 
and every modern luxury of life have been brought to it 
from all parts of the world — it is that which has compelled 
Governments to recognise the right of Johannesburg to take 
a place in the front rank of modern municipalities. The 
Colonial Office of the Transvaal, in its last report, traces 
clearly the rapid growth of and the efforts to meet the 
demand for local government. That method of adminis- 
tration was not understood by the Boer farmers in whom 
supreme power was vested prior to the discoveries of 
gold ; and their refusal to sanction it when demanded by 
the chiefs of the mining and commercial community was 
the chief cause of Dr. Jameson's expedition. Even now 
local government is restricted to urban centres. Rural 
-districts are still administered from the capital by Govern- 
ment officials. 

The report above mentioned asserts the value to be 
derived from local government in the efforts that are now 
being made to establish friendly relations between Boers 
and Britons. "It is in the towns and not on the farms 
that the races chiefly mingle with each other. Their 
representatives meet at a town council table, and in their 
joint efforts to provide what is needed for local progress 
have obtained an intimate knowledge of each other which 
proclaims that character rather than blood is required for 
building up a country." This statement proclaims at once 
the difference between the Administrations before and sinc« 
the war of 1899-1902. 


In the time of Sir Owen Lanyon it was decided to 
establish a municipality for Pretoria ; but after the retro- 
cession that design was abandoned because the succeeding^ 
Government was averse to independent bodies having 
special powers for raising and spending money. Every- 
thing was then worked by the Executive of the Republic^ 
which appointed a Landdrost (local magistrate) in each 
district to supervise all works that were paid for out of Gov- 
ernment funds. The gold and diamond explorers, however, 
soon showed that such a plan would not work smoothly in 
mining camps. Most of the original prospectors on the 
Witwatersrand came from Kimberley, and they suggested 
the adoption of Kimberley methods of laying out and regu- 
lating townships. The Kimberley plan was to map the 
township in small leasehold plots, each sufficient for a 
miner's tent or shanty. Barberton was the first mining 
township to be so laid out, and Johannesburg followed suit 
very quickly. The plan has been adopted for all the town- 
ships along the Witwatersrand Main Reef. 

Agricultural district townships on the other hand were 
laid out by the Boer settlers i^ freehold erven of much 
larger area, and while these might have gone on indefinitely 
without local organisation, it was not possible for mining 
townships to do so. A plot of ground originally intended 
for a miner's tent became valuable as a site for a hotel or a 
store when the permanency of the gold industry was 
assured ; and the rapid influx of a large population called 
for immediate sanitary regulations, which the Government 
was asked to delegate to local administrators. 

Johannesburg as a gold producing centre was dis- 
covered in the middle of 1886. It was proclaimed as a 
township towards the end of the same year, and in 1887 a 
" Sanitary Committee " was established. Similar com- 
mittees were appointed in the other mining townships, and 
in each instance by a special resolution of the Volksraad. 

But Johannesburg soon outgrew the capacity of such 
a system. Its inhabitants had come from well ordered 
European cities and they resented the discomforts ex- 
perienced on the Rand. It was the absence of an efficient 
Joca) administration which provoked some of the townsmen 


to negotiate with Dr. Jameson. After his ill-fated " Raid *' 
the Boer Republic deferred to suggestions from the London 
Colonial Office and established a Stadsraad (Town Coun- 
cil) for Johannesburg. 

Half the members of the Stadsraad were required to 
be Burghers of the Republic. Its Chairman (Burger- 
meister) was nominated by the President, and its extremely 
limited powers were constantly reviewed by the Govern- 
ment. So things went on until the British occupation in 
1900, when Johannesburg was placed in charge of a 
military officer, who worked under the directiqn of the 
Military Governor. May 1901, saw the commencement 
of European methods of local administration on the Rand ; 
for a Town Council of twelve nominated members was 
appointed, under the presidency of Major 0*Meara. This 
was very little more than the old Stadsraad under 
another name, and it continued without change until the 
period of martial law expired. During that period members 
of the nominated Council were employed, not only in im- 
mediate administration of the town's sanitation, but also in 
the evolution of regulations for its future government in 
times of peace.''' These regulations have been the subject 
of much discussion and amendment, but they formed the 
basis on which the Legislative Council (also a nominated 
body) framed its Ordinances for the establishment and 
ordering of municipalities, and the election of Councillors 
to administer the same. The Government claims that in 
this way it has permitted the citizen to originate the 
present law of the Transvaal ; but, as a matter of fact, all 
that was done in the nominated Town Council of Johannes- 
burg was to adopt certain European methods, which had 
been laid before them by the legal advisers of the Colonial 
Administration. Such methods, the outcome of generations 
of experience in a city like Manchester, for instance, cannot 

* In 1902 a similar municipality was establi^ed in Pretoria. It 
remained in office until May, 1903, when its members resigned owing to 
differences of opinion with the Government on the subject of Town 
Lands. A commission of Government officials then administered the city 
cintil the popular election of a Town Council uud^t xJcvt \^\wȣv^ 
Elections Ordinance of 1903. 


with advantage be applied to a small place like Boksburg 
^n bioCy and, therefore, many village towns have been 
saddled with an elephantine system that is unworkable ; 
but the system serves as a groundwork on whicii the 
•councillors of large towns may try their 'prentice hands at 
local administration. In July 1903, the Governor's assent 
was obtained to four measures: the Municipal Corpora- 
tions Ordinance, the Mljinicipal Elections Ordinance, the 
Rating Ordinance, and (for Johannesburg only) the 
Expropriation Ordinance. Thus provided with the 
machinery for local government, the various municipalities 
of the Transvaal began their civic life, and the first real 
Town Council for Johannesburg was elected thereunder in 
December 1903. It consists of thirty members, one-third 
of whom retire annually. The Johannesburg Municipal 
•elections of 1903 and 1904 were conducted on the general 
Ticket System, whereby all the voters voted for all the 
Councillors, many of whom could only be personally known 
to a fraction of the electors. This plan was not to the 
mind of the citizens, who demanded the division of 
Johannesburg into districts, each of which should elect its 
own Councillors. That demand has been conceded by the 
Lieut.-Governor, and the 1905 elections throughout the 
Transvaal will, therefore, be conducted uniformly on the- 
Ward System. 

The elected Town Council of Johannesburg inherited 
from the nominated Council many liabilities of startling 
magnitude, in the shape of public works for improving the 
-sanitation and locomotion of the city. The nominated 
Council had arranged a three million loan in England 
towards those schemes, but this being insufficient, a further 
loan of two-and-a-half millions was negotiated at the be- 
ginning of 1905, with the promise of another at no distant 
•date. These loans, together with the monies borrowed on 
behalf of the water supply of the Rand (see page 90), 
involve Johannesburg in a debt of nine millions; but as 
that is less than the output of the gold mines in six months 
00 one is staggered by the thought of it. C. A. L. 


Johannesburg Statistics. 

The statistician of Johannesburg has contributed the 
following summaries : — 

Population, — The population of Johannesburg in 1887 
was about 3,000; in 1890, over 26,000; in 1896, over 
102,000; and in April 1904, nearly 160,000, almost 84,000' 
of whom are whites. 

The complete results of the 1904 census are not yet 
available, so that we are compelled to fall back on the 1896 
tables for details. Several interesting facts relating to the 
white population are disclosed by these statements. There 
were 32,387 males and 18,520 females, or only 4 females 
to every 7 males. More than three-fourths of the males 
were over 16 years of age. The number of persons of 50 
years of age and upwards formed only one-twentieth of the 
whole population. There were 18,200 married persons^ 
but three- fifths of these were males. The excess of married 
males over married females is no doubt to a great extent 
due to wives remaining in Cape Colony and in Europe. 

Area. — The area under the jurisdiction of the Town 
Council or " Stadsraad " before the war was just over five 
square miles. The nominated Town Council when firsi 
constituted in May, 1901, controlled an area of about nine 
square miles. This area was extended in November, 1902^ 
to include the mines, townships, etc.» within a radius of, 
roughly, five miles from the Market Square. The area 
within these new boundaries was about 75 J square miles, 
further extended in 1903 to 8if square miles. One of the 
many new townships that have sprung into sudden and 
vigorous life since the war is represented on the adjoining page. 

Rateable Valine, — The rateable (capital) value of the 
municipal area was over ;^5,25o,ooo in 1895, of which land 
represented about ;^3, 000,000 ; in 1897, over ;^i9,750,ooo^ 
of which about ;^i 6,000,000 was for land. The present 
rateable value is nearly ^39,500,000, of which land represents 
about ;^2 7,000,000. Roughly, the debt of the city represents 
one-fourth of its rateable value. The rateable value is 
capital value, not rental. The present rate is 3d., equal to 
B 48. rate in England, where the rate is according to rent. 








* H 








Hi V- 



1 ^ 






Vital Statistics. 

Births, — ^During the year July i, 1903 to June 30^ 
1904, 2,431 white births were registered, equal to a birth 
rate of 289 per 1,000. During the same period 451 
coloured births were registered. In calculating the pro- 
portion of coloured births, it should be remembered that 
thousands of mine labourers have left their wives at home. 

Deaths, — From July i, 1903, to June 30, 1904, the- 
total number of white deaths registered was 1,539, equal to a ' 
death rate from all causes of 18*3 per 1,000 per annum. 
Deducting 93 non-residents, the death rate was 17*2: 
per thousand. 

Dysentery and diarrhoea were responsible for 315 
deaths (of which 207 were children under one year of age)^ 
pneumonia 171, enteric 126, tuberculosis of lungs 82, and 
miner's phthisis 36. 

The infantile mortality (i.^. of infants under one year) 
was 185 per 1,000 births. 

The number of coloured deaths registered during the 
same period was 2,404, equal to a death rate of 32*9 per 
1,000 persons living. Pneumonia was by far the most 
fatal malady, causing 762 deaths. Dysentery and diarrhoea 
were responsible for 316 deaths, of which 90 were amongsj 
infants under one year old. Tuberculosis of the lungs is- 
credited with 195 deaths, enteric or typhoid with 104 
deaths, and scurvy with 74 deaths. 

Marriages. — From July i, 1903, to June 30, 1904, the 
number of white marriages registered was 1,193, equal to- 
a marriage rate of 28*4 per thousand. 

Duriilg the same period 105 coloured marriages were- 
registered. Here again the few native women on the Rand 
must be taken into account. When a Kaffir has earned 
enough money by mine labour he goes home to be married. 

Before any marriage ceremony can take place in a 
place of worship in the Transvaal the parties enter into a 
civil contract before a magistrate, whose duty it is to tell 
them that they are legally married thereby without any 
other service or ceremony ! For this procedure the Govern-- 
ment receives a fee ot £^ from each white couple. 


Poor Relitf. — Happily, there are no workhouses in 
Johannesburg at present. The only duty in connection with 
poor relief imposed on the Municipality is that of providing 
for the burial of destitute persons dying within the limits of 
the Municipality. The Town Council, however, contribute 
j^6oa per annum towards the Home maintained by the 
Rand Aid Association ; ^300 per annum towards the Men's 
Night Shelter, the Men's Social Farm, and the Rescue 
Home for Women, maintained by the Salvation Army ; 


£"300 per annum towards the support of the Johannesburg 
Branch of the Nazareth House ; ;^200 per annum to the 
Children's Undenomiaational Home; and £"75 for the 
current half-year to the maintenance of the Home f<^ 
Homeless Women and Children, established by' the 
Benevolent Sub-Committee of the Guild of Loyal Women ; 
£100 for the current half-year to the Anglican Orphanf^e, 
TurfiTontein ; and ^£150 for the current half-year to the 
Dutch Orphan^e, Langlaagte. 



Municipal Finance* — The revenue for the 
was originally estimated at ;^76 1,283, n^ade up 

Licences, Fees, etc. 

Charges for Sanitary Service 

Expropriated Area Rents 

Light and Power Department Profit 

Tramways Profit 

Miscellaneous and Extraordinary 

Brought forward from previous year 

Assessment Rate (2d. in £) 

year 1904-5 
as follows: — 






The ordinary expenditure was estimated at ;^745,525, 
composed of : — 

Interest and Redemption Charges 

Expropriated Area Administration 

Street Lighting 

Night Soil Removal 

Ref uee 

Slop and Bath-water 

Street Scavenging 

Rand Plague Committee . 

Maintenance of Streets, &c. 

Administration — Various Departments 









Town Improvement Schemes. — The Town Council have 
expropriated an area of about 1 73 acres, a large portion of 
which was in an insanitary condition, laid out on no regular 
plan, and without sufficient means for through communi- 
cation for the large traffic going westwards from the centre 
of the town. 

Bree Street and Jeppe Street, two of the principal 
thoroughfares, will be continued through the area, which 
will be properly drained and laid out in larger blocks than 
those in most of the remainder of the business portion of 
the town. 

Dwellings to accommodate persons of the working 
chiss displaced have already been erected. 


Sanitation, — The " Bucket system " is employed for 
the removal of nightsoil. Slop water and bath water are 
collected by means of tanks, deposited at intake stations^ 
and thence either led by gravitation or pumped to deposit- 
ing sites. 

The present system is both very costly and very 
unsatisfactory, and its defects are aggravated by the 
unavoidable employment of native labour. 

The Town Council has decided upon a water-borne 
sewerage scheme, and it is expected that the south-western 
portion of the town, which is estimated to contain about 
half the total population, will be sewered by the end of 
1905. Plans for the south-eastern and eastern portions of 
the scheme are in course of preparation. 

Refuse is dealt with partly by means of two refuse 
destructors and partly by disposal on depositing sites. 

Lighting, — The electric and gas undertakings are owned 
and worked by the Municipality, having been acquired from 
the Johannesburg Lighting Company in 1895. 

The gas undertaking is a small one, and the mains are 
laid in very few streets. The number of cubic feet of gas 
made is about the same as in the small town of Berwick-on- 

The electric light undertaking, although considerably 
extended since it was acquired by the town, is inadequate 
to meet the public demands, and about two-thirds of the 
current supplied is purchased by the Council as a temporary 

A generating station and system of distribution 
adequate to meet all immediate demands are being provided 
by the Council under the comprehensive scheme for electric 
light and power, now being carried out. 

Fire Brigade, — The Municipality possesses a well- 
equipped Fire Brigade. The central station is a temporary 
one and is situated on the north-west corner of Von 
Brandis Square. 

A Fire Station for the Eastern District has been 
erected at Teppestown. 




Market. — The market is owned and controlled by the 
Johannesburg Market Concession and Building Company, 
Limited, under a concession granted in 1889 by the Gov- 
ernment of the late South African Republic. 

The averf^e prices paid at auction in Johannesburg 
for forage and foodstuffs in bulk during June 1905, were : — 



., '^ 




■nfti -^PF 




ijj;, 'Jsi 


















Barley, per bag of 160 lbs. 
Chaff, per bale, 100 lbs. r 
*=■ — Ter dozen, new laid 

Forage, per K 
Fowls, each 
Mealies, per bag zoo lbs. net 
Onions, per bag of 125 lbs. ne 
Pigs, pel lb. live weight 
Potatoes, per b^ of 160 lbs. 1 
Rye, per bag of 200 lbs. net 
Salt, per bag of 200 lbs net 
Seed oats, per bag of [30 lbs. 
Turkey cocks, each 
Tobacco, cut, per lb. 
Wheat, per bag of 200 lbs. ne 

:, large 

S 6 to 59 



Tramways, — The tramways were taken over by the 
Municipality by agreement with the Johannesburg City and 
Suburban Tramway Co., Ltd., on June 30, 1904. The 
Company owned and worked the tramways under a con- 
cession granted by the authority of the State President and 
the State Secretary of the late South African Republic in 
April 1889, to Mr. Sigmund Neumann, and ceded to the 
Company in September, 1889. 

The tramway system, at present limited to 1 1 J miles of 
route and employing only horse-power, has long since 
proved inadequate to the requirements of the town, as it 
covers practically only the portion of the Municipality 
between the railway and the mines. The Town Council 
is, therefore, providing electric tramways on an extensive 
scale, and it is expected that the electric cars will be run- 
ning on some routes before the end of 1905. 

jRates of Wages and Hours of Labour, — The following 
Statement shows the rate of wages and hours of labour in 
some of the principal trades in June, 1905, according to a 
statement supplied by the Witwatersrand Trades and 
Labour Council : — 








Engineers — Mines 

Engineers — Railway 

Iron Founders 

Lino Operators 

Machine Minders 






Rates of wages. 

90s. per week 
2os. per day 
115s. per week 
22s. 6d. per day 
2s. 6d. per hour 
115s. per week 
120S. per week 
2s. 6d. per hour 
120S. per week 
140S. per week 
115s. per week 
25s. per day 
1 8s. per day 
22s. 6d per day 
20s. per day 
3s. per hour 

Hours of Labour. 

60 per week 
48 per week 
48 per week 
8 per day 
48 per week 
48 per week 

48 per week 
51 per week 
45 per week 
48 per week 
10 per day 
70 per week 
48 per week 
50 per week 
48 per week 



Imports and Exports. 

783,413 tons of goods were received at Transvaal 
stations from the Cape, Natal and Delagoa Railways dur- 
ing 1904. Of these 357,079 tons were for Johannesburg 
and 198,631 tons for other stations on the Rand, leaving 
227,703 tons for the rest of the Transvaal. 

The value of goods imported into the Transvaal during 
the year 1904 was : — £ 

Metals, Machinery, &c. ... ... 2,933,474 

Textiles and Clothing ... ... 2,310,068 

Foodstuffs and Drink ... ... 3»633,849 

Miscellaneous ... ... 4,749,986 

Total ;^i 3*627,377 

Some of the larger items were :■ 


Mining Machinery 

Apparel and Slops 

Boots and Shoes 

Haberdashery and Millinery 


Flour and Meal (wheaten).. 




Chemicals and Toilet Articles 




Books, Stationery and Paper 
Corn and Grain (other than wheaten 
flour and meal) ... ... 

Dynamite and other Explosives 

Furniture, Carpets, &c. 

Tobacco and Tobacconist's Ware . . . 

Wood (manufactured and unmanufactured) 527,632 

The exports for the same period amounted to ;^i 7,770,988 

The chief exports were — Gold, ;^ 16,054,809 ; Diamonds. 
^poi,/4j; and Coal, ;^i43,63o. S. E. C. 




Railway Station Courtesies. 

The world-wide reputation which Johannesburg has 
attained, not only by means of its gold output but also by 
reason of its response to opportunity, has rendered it an 
object lesson for people with means and leisure from 
every land. The citizens have therefore abundant occasion 
for manifesting good feeling, and Park Station is almost 
daily the scene of vociferous welcomes and good>byes. 
The accompanying illustration represents the interest 



^■' . .tal 


recently taken in the visit paid by an American admiral 
who had anchored his fleet in Table Bay and paid a flying 
visit to the Transvaal. Still larger crowds witnessed the 
departure of one High Commissioner and the arrival cf 
another during the year 1905. Smaller crowds but very 
hearty ones " send off" old friends and popular favourites 
by the Coast trains every Sunday night and by the 
European irain-de-luxe on Monday afternoons on their way 
to catch the mail steamers. 




Newspapers of Johannesburg. 

From the last paragraph it will be seen that Johan- 
nesburgers take keen interest in international affairs. The 
newspapers help, them to do so. The proportion of cable 
news in Johannesburg daily papers is not less than in those 
of London. Four journals compete for the favour of 
Johannesburg, viz. : The Transvaal Leader, The Rand 
1)aily Mail, The Star and The Daily Express. 

Very few newspapers in the Transvaal aie self- 
supp)orting ; most of them are obliged to seek special 
assistance beyond what is received from advertisements 
and sales. Owing to this position patrons of the papers 
are able to offer sufficient remuneration to attract 
journalists of merit. The Star of Johannesburg is 
tbe property of the Argus Company of South Africa r 
and The Leader is owned by the Cape Times, 
Limited. The Rand Daily Mail has changed its pro- 
prietors twice during the year 1905 ; and the Daily 
Express is quite a new paper, dating from the first 
Monday of July, 1905. The Leader and The Star each 
publish an illustrated weekly summary. Post Office sorters 
are kept very busy on Saturdays and Mondays owing to 
the numbers of those weeklies which are mailed to England. 

Other weeklies published in Johannesburg are the 
Transvaal Critic, the South African Mining Journal, 
and the Transvaal Review. There are several weeklies 
and monthlies representing the interests of particular 
commercial or religious organisations. 

Pretoria has three daily papers, two English and one 
Dutch, viz. : the Transvaal Advertiser, the Pretoria 
News and the Volkstem. Land en Volk and De 
Transvaler are Dutch weeklies. 

Many of the country towns have weekly papers. 
Among the more prominent are the Goldfields News 
(Barberton), the East Rand Express (Germiston), the 


(Standerton), the Lydenburg News, the Zoutpansberg 
Review, the Volksrust Recorder, the Klerksdorp^ 
Record, and the Heidelberg News. 


The Stock Exchange. 

One of the most notable institutions connected with 
Johannesburg is the Stock Exchange. Its original locale 
used to be on the north side of Commissioner Street, between 
Simmonds and Fraser Streets, in the building now known 
as the Old Exchange, but the Exchange had no corporate 
existence before 1897. Until that year its status partook 
of the somewhat unsatisfactory naturfe of a private venture 
of the Johannesburg Estate Company, much in the same 
way as other private exchanges are doing business in the 
city still, only on a larger scale. When the brokers became 
numerous and wealthy, they obtained a charter of incorpora- 
tion and purchased the site of the new Stock Exchange. 
When the war was over, steps were taken to provide a 
suitable edifice with a result that is admirable, at a cost of 
;^i 60,000. 

The structure occupies a whole block between Fox, 
Holland, Main and Sauer Streets. It is built in the style 
with which Inigo Jones and Christopher Wren commenced 
to ornament Whitehall, a style that is well adapted to 
official buildings. There are three floors of offices and a 
basement, three electric lifts and five staircases. The 
Exchange Hall is in the centre, and lighted from the roof. 
The offices, 210 in number, are built all round the hall on 
each floor. There is a large strong room for members only, 
containing 294 safes of varying size. Under the Exchange 
Hall are Reading, Writing and Billiard Rooms for the use 
of members. The excavations for the building began in 
August, 1902, the foundation was laid by Lord Milner on 
April 6, 3903, and the premises were occupied in December 
of that year. The material is Transvaal stone. The 
hall is divided by two rows of marble pillars into a nave 
and aisles. 

Much might be written about the importance of the 
Stock Exchange transactions on mining speculations. Some 
gold-mining companies, for instance, have not put a spade into 
the ground. They are created for the purpose of raising 
capital with which to speculate in the shares of gold-mining 
companies that do work. Naturally, the shareholders have 



no objection to this course, so long asgood dividends are paid; 
but it hardly seems legitimate business to the outside world. 

In June 1905, there were 214 different stocks quoted 
on the official list of the Exchange. These represented a 
total ot over one hundred millions sterling. The stocks are 
not only gold-mine shares, but include coal-mines, land, 
diamond mines, financial corporations, municipal and water 
loans, and exploration syndicate shares. 

Before the war, the entrance fee for those who were 


allowed to become members of the Stock Exchange was 
100 guineas. It is now 500 guineas. Members pay in 
addition three guineas per quarter. There were about 500 
members at the end of June 1905, of whom nearly 400 were 
proprietary members. 

The Stock Exchange business, like all other businesses 
in Johannesburg, begins at 9 a.m., and sometimes the 
transactions completed are numerically enormous. At 
other times the members have very little to do. The Stock 
Exchange is the barometer of South African prosperity. 



Principal Streets. 
It is not a purpose of this book to make detailed 
references to particular houses of business. That would be 
a lengthy and an invidious task. It must suffice to name 
the principal streets and let visitors judge for themselves 
the merits of individual stores. Visitors to London, shopping 
bent, gravitate to Oxford Street or Tottenham Court Road, 
according to their needs, although they could probably get 
similar goods at the same price nearer home. It is the 


same with Johannesburg. If a wedding trousseau is 
wanted by a farmer's daughter, she wanders to Johannesburg 
to get it ; and the specific shopping districts are as well 
classified and as well known as they are in any other great 
«ity. There is a hay-market and a cattle- market, but at 
different ends of the same great Market Square, and the 
two departments are never allowed to clash. The less said 
about the Market buildings the better. Visitors will be 
-amused by the aactioneei cheapjacks in Market Square. 


Oxford Street has its counterpart in Pritchard Street ; 
but Eloff Street, which crosses Pritchard Street at right 
angles, caters for an entirely different class of customers, 
just as Bond Street in London has its peculiar clientele. 
Pritchard Street on a Saturday night, between Rissik 
Street and Von Brandis Square, is one of the sights of the 
city. Vehicular traffic is stopped, and pedestrians throng 
the roadway in the blaze of countless electric lights, not so 
much for the purpose of shopping as to look for old 
acquaintances, and talk over what has happened since the 
previous Saturday. 

Commissioner Street is the Strand, and it extends due 
east and west for miles. It is emphatically a man's street. 
Women will find very little in it to satisfy their shopping 
propensities. In the day-time it is given over to ** profes- 
sional " work. The gold- mining companies have their 
offices there or thereabouts ; agents, solicitors and architects 
abound ; restaurants and bars bespeak their hasty meals and 
the drinks with which each "deal " is cemented. Loaters 
throng each corner to the great inconvenience of people 
who have business to transact. Most of the theatres and 
the largest hotels are in Commissioner Street. At present 
horse-drawn tram-cars traverse the busiest part of Com- 
missioner Street, but the electrically-propelled cars will run 
along Market and Main Streets, and so bring the latter into 
greater prominence than they at present enjoy. 

As far as possible the main streets of Johannesburg 
are laid out east and west, with cross streets running north 
and south ; but this arrangement is not absolute, owing to 
the original boundaries of different estates on which the 
town is built. Where the original township was limited, 
for instance, by a diagonal line dividing two properties, 
that acute division is still traceable in the termination of 
the streets. On the whole, however, the city is well laid 
out and most of the streets are sufficiently wide. 

Two cross streets connecting Commissioner and 
Market Streets are noticeable as having been closed to 
vehicular traffic for a long while by means of posts and 
chains.^ They are called Simmonds Street and Eraser 
Street. One of them was closed several years ago to- 


enable share brokers to do their business in the open air, 
the Stock Exchange being then on the west side of Sim- 
monds Street. Since the new Stock Exchange was built that 
street has been re-opened for wheeled traffic. Eraser 
Street was subsequently blocked to give similar facilities 
to auctioneers ; and its chains arc still in evidence. " The 
Chains " of Johannesburg are as world renowned as Capel 
Court or Wall Street. 

The principal structure in Johannesburg is undoubtedly 
" the Corner House,'* at the corner of Simmonds and 
Commissioner Streets, the official headquarters of the 
greatest group of gold mine companies. It belongs to the 
firm of Eckstein & Co.. Adjoining it northwards and in so 
identical a style that the two buildings seem to be one, is 
the chief office of the National Bank. S. E. and within a 
stone's throw is the new block built by Barnato Brothers 
at the junction of Fox and Harrison Streets. A fine view 
of Johannesburg and its surroundings is obtainable from 
the roof of either of these buildings. 

Several of the commercial firms have erected stately 
structures quite as lofty as the mine offices named, and the 
older business places suffice by comparison. For many 
years to come the symmetry of the town will be impaired by 
these irregularities. It is to be regretted that there was 
not an efficient building committee in existence to control 
the size and type of offices, shops and houses. The archi- 
tects practising in the city have thought a good deal about 
their drawings as they look on paper, but nothing at all 
about the environment of the finished buildings. Conse- 
quently the tall and the dwarf are jumbled inartistically 
together, and the city is made a thing of shreds and 
patches. Regent's Street in London does not suffer com- 
mercially where its shops are of uniform architecture. Nor 
is Johannesburg any the better off by having elephantine 
and pigmy buildings side by side. This is one of the 
problems its Town Council will have to solve when sewage 
and lighting schemes are out of the way. For their own 
credit's sake the local Society of Architects and the Muni- 
cipal Surveyor should give the matter serious consideration. 

The Boer Government proclaiinved ^oVvaLV\\i^'^\a%\.^\i!^ 


a township on September 20, 1886. On December 8 of 
that year the first block of stands was sold by auction, and 
the prices realised varied from a few shillings to ;^20o. 
Subsequent sales were held and the total amount realised 
by the sale of all the land in the original city was about 
;^5o,ooo. A comparison of this fact with the present price 
of land in the centre of the town is more than instructive. 

Public Buildings. 

Besides the Post Office (page 76), there are no public 
buildings in Johannesburg worth mentioning, the late 
Republic having established its administrative offices in 
Pretoria before there was any idea of the development of 
Johannesburg to its present extensive proportions. The 
Law and Police Courts (page 96A) are inadequately housed 
on ** Government Square," between Rissik and ElofF and 
south of Fox Street. When the original courts became too 
small other rooms were rented in Caledonian Buildings 
near by, and these are now Government property. Better 
accommodation and a larger staff of judges, magistrates, 
and clerks are urgently needed. 

The Municipal Buildings on Plein Square are purposely 
of a temporary character, in hope that a Town Hall may 
spring up before long on the Market Square, facing the 
Post Office. The Post Office itself had an additional storey 
built on to it in 1904, but it is still far too small. 

When the military occupied Johannesburg in 1900 
there were many blocks of offices at disposal. Some of the 
best, such as the Castle block in Eloff Street, the Corpora- 
tion Buildings in Rissik Street, Winchester House in 
Loveday Street, and Henwood's Arcade in the Market 
Square, were taken over for the martial law administration, 
and these have continued in Government occupation at a 
high rental ever since; except that the building of new 
railway offices opposite Park Station has recently set the 
upper floors of Henwood's Arcade at liberty for commercial 
purposes. A controversy is going on between the Govern- 
ment and the Municipality as to where Government offices 


should be built, the opinion of citizens being that the 
Market Square site should be reserved for Municipal 
Buildings, and that the Government Departments should 
be housed in Von Brandis Square. 

The Suburbs of Johannesburg. 

Visitors to Johannesburg should take excursions to- 
various points of vantage, such as Fair view, the Observa- 
tory, Hillbrow, and the roof of the " Corner House ** in 
order to survey the surrounding townships. They may be 
reminded of days when the Church of Trafalgar Square, for 
instance, was literally * St. Martin's in the fields,* between the 
cities of London and Westminster. It has taken over 20a 
years to fill up those fields with offices and houses, but 
there were hardly a score of houses to be found within the 
present municipal boundaries of Johannesburg in 1885. 
To-day there are scores of thousands. Some of them are 
palaces, the majority of them are comfortable, and the 
dilapidated ones are only so because of the caution exer- 
cised by Pioneers of the Rand when its treasures were first 
revealed. As each pioneer made a little money he discarded 
his tent for a wood and iron shanty. When he made a little 
more he built a small cottage on the veld just outside the 
proclaimed diggings. When his funds increased still 
further he built a villa " in the country," and as he grew 
in wealth so his domestic requirements expanded. His 
shanty became a store, his cottage sheltered his workmen, 
his villa was rented to his clerk or to the lady who lets 
lodgings, and what used to be *' the country " is now the 
inner circumference of the original township itself sur- 
rounded by ever widening circles of houses, shops, villas, 
homesteads and all the institutions needful to the life of a 
great city. Johannesburg and five miles round roughly 
represents the municipality. Counting Johannesburg as 
the area within a radius of one mile from the General Post 
Office — all beyond are the suburbs, which vary in density 
of population according to the distance from town, or 
according to the energy and worldly wisdom expended in 
booming the ** residential estates " into which the outlying 
districts have been planned. In the "early days" of the 



Rand miners and tradesmen speculated in shares. They 
wiser now, and prefer to invest in something that 
run very far away. The working men who own a 
plot of land and a house are in greater proportion in Johan- 
nesburg than in England; and they can generally realise 
with advantage when they want to go back to the Old 
Country. The wealthier suburbs are Parktown, Berea 
Belgravia, and Doornfontein ; the poorer districts are 
Fordsburg, Braamfoniein and Jeppes. Vrededorp is 













almost oxdubivcly oti-iipied by poor Dutch. Civil servants 
are migrating to Richmond and Melville. The enormous 
number of cyclists careering in all directions from the city 
from one o'clock in the day up to a quarter past that hour 
proclaims the number of clerks, both male and female who 
live near enough to go home to lunch ; and the still larger 
number of cyclists who throng the street from 5 to 5.30 
p.m. is a sure guide to the popularity of the s\i.U\«.\k. ^o^ 
those whose means are slender. TW nuvrib&t q\ " ""^ 



who precede them by half-an-hour is an equally safe 
indication of the directions in which successful commercial 
and professional men prefer to dwell. Visitors shoulp 
explore the suburbs for themselves. Until they have done 
so they have not seen Johannesburg. 

Country Drives. 

For lack of convenient seaside resorts Johannesburgers 
who need fresher air than the dust-laden city affords seek 
it in occasional excursions to outlying hamlets, either within 
or without the Municipal boundaries. A very popular 
drive is through Parktown and the forest known as the 
Sachzenwald, which the Braamfontein Estate Company 
planted about 1888, to Craighall Park, where there is a 
convenient hostelry for entertainment of man and beast: 
returning by the more easterly route to Johannesburg 
through Norwood township and Orange Grove. Roadways 
are now being made through the Sachsenwald in all direc- 
tions, prior to leasing the estate for residential purposes ; 
but a portion of the wood has been presented to the town 
to be known as * Eckstein's Park,' and here will be found 
the small nucleus of what may grow into an important 
zoological collection. 

On bank holidays, and on Wednesday and Saturday 
afternoons, picnics to the lakes and waterfalls of the Rand 
[notably, Boksburg (page 98), Florida (page 154), and 
Rosherville (page 963), are organised for the recreation of 
city workers and their families. There are no excursion 
vans, such as school -children and beanf casters delight in 
at Home, but luggage trolleys drawn by half-a-dozen mules 
serve the purpose very well, especially when a mattress is 
laid on the floor of the waggon to sit upon, and the merry- 
makers' feet dangle over the sides. School-children enjoy 
this immensely, and so apparently do children of larger 
growth. For those who prefer a speedier method of trans- 
port there are convenient trains to the " lakes." Cleveland 
is the station for Rosherville. Florida and Boksburg have 
stations close at hand. 


Remarkable Building Activity. 
The best way of arriving at a just idea of the rapid 
development of Johannesburg Municipality is by an analysis 
of the work done in the office of the city's Building 
Surveyor. During the six months ending June 30, 1905, 
the number of building plans submitted to, and approved 
by, that department were as follows : — January, 604 ; 
February, 693 ; March, 924; April, 632; May, 734 ; June, 
613 — total, 4,200. The plans are for aJl sorts of buildings, 




great and small, but most of them are for new dwelling- 
houses and shops, or additions to existing houses and shops. 
These approved plans represent the building work that is 
now going on in every direction. In the rainy months of 
the year there is naturally less building done. 

The Municipality, for the purpose of this analysis, is 
arbitrarily divided into four circles ; the city within a mile 
of Market Square ; the inner circle from a mile to two 
miles from Market Square ; the middle circle from two to 
three miles from Market Square; and the large outer 
circle thence to the extreme boundaries of t' ? Mu<CAs:.v;a^\V) 


Details of the number of plans passed for each township 
follow, in order to explain where work is being done. 

The Hub,— KxgyW 2, Braamfontein 65, Burgersdorp 
68, City and Suburban 61, Ferreira 132, Hospital Hill 10, 
Johannesburg 422, Marshall's Town 161, Marshall's 
Extension 11, Newtown 5, Wanderers* View 46 — total, 983. 

The Inner Circle. — Berea 50, Bertrams 58, Braam- 
fontein Werf 16, Doornfontein 62, Fairview 106, Fordsburg 
79, Highlands i, Hillbrow 98, Jeppes 85, Lake View 30, 
Lorentzville 36, Mayfair 10, New Doornfontein 119, 
Ophirton 51, Parktown 88, Parktown West 15, Prospect 
4, Spes Bona 6, Springfield 43, Troyeville 126, Vrededorp 
144, Wolhuter 13, Yeoville 105 — total 1345. 

The Middle Circle. — Auckland Park 3, Belgravia 9, 
Bellevue 99, Bellevue East 100, Bezuidenhout Valley 150, 
Booysens 14, Booysens Reserve 33, Brixton 42, Heronmere 
16, Houghton Estate i, Jeppes Extension 122, Judith's 
Paarl 46, Kensington 43, Klipriversberg 17, La Rochelle 
61, Melville 60, Observatory 24, Regents Park 66, Rich- 
mond 37, Sunny side 12, Turffontein 214 — total, 11 69. 

The Outer Circle, — Abbotsford 7, Albertville 5, Braam- 
fontein Farm 3, Bramley 9, Claremont 7, Cleveland 10, 
Cyferfontein 2, Denver 52, Doornfontein Farm 6, East 
Town I, Emmarentia 2, Forest Hill 31, Gardens 9, High- 
lands North 4, Klipfontein 5, Langlaagte 9, Linden 6, 
Martindale 8, Melrose 23, Mountain View 4, Newlands 58, 
Norwood 80, Oaklands 14, Orange Grove 29, Orchards 40, 
Parkhurst 5, Parktown North 27, Rosebank 12, Rosetten- 
ville 61, Rosettenville Extension 12, Rouxville 6, Sophia 
Town 45, Victoria 8, Water val Farm 5, Waverley 9, West 
Turffontein 10 — total 613. 89 other plans were passed for 
buildings on the mines not included in these townships. 

The Wanderers' and Sport. 

The magnificent recreation ground belonging to 
the Wanderers' Club is situated immediately to the north 
of Park Station, and covers an area of thirty acres. Here 
are the headquarters of athletics for Johannesburg and the 
Transvaal in general. Four separate grounds are available 


for cricks, football, hockey, lacrosse and baseball, while the 
eastern portion is marked off into ten lawn-tennis courts. 
In the centre of the ground are two halls, forming the most 
popular assembly rooms in the town. 

The Wanderers' Club, which now comprises a member- 
ship of over a thousand, sprang from small beginnings. A 
football club and a Wanderers' cricket club made use of 
the site before it was formally leased in 1888 by the lat« 


Government to a reconstituted Wanderers' Club at a rental 
of £"50 a year. On this club, which received the financial 
support of the leading inhabitants of Johannesburg 
devolved the task of fencing and laying out the 
ground, on which a sum of ^33,000 in all has been 
expended. During the season of iS38 - 9 the first 
English cricket team to visit the Transvaal played two 
matchesatthe Wanderers'. Visits have since been received 
from three other Home cricket teams, from the Australians, 
and from English Rugby and Association football teams. 


It is, however, not only in the realm of sport that the 
Wanderers' has become a household word in South Africa. 
In the large hall, which in normal times does duty for a 
gymnasium or a skating rink, have been held the majority 
of the public meetings that have formed so prominent a 
feature in the political activity of the Rand. Here Presi- 
dent Kruger met the Uitlander community on his memorable 
visit to Johannesburg in 1890. Nine years later the great 
meeting of the South African League that was forcibly 
broken up by the authorities took place within its walls; 
while in more recent times less momentous questions have 
not failed to pack the hall with the Johannesburg public. 
The new hall, built since the war to replace the wood and 
iron structure that was burned to the ground in 1898, does 
duty for balls, concerts, etc. H. T. M. B. 

The Turf and the Jockey Club. 

Johannesburg and the Rand are well supplied with 
accommodation for the sport of kings. On the principal 
race-course at Turffontein, two miles south of the Market 
Square, four meetings are held annually* extending over 
three days each. Meetings of the Pony and Galloway 
Club are freely interspersed between the larger events. 
Besides this course there are several others over which 
the jurisdiction of the Jockey Club is not acknowledged. 

The Jockey Club of South Africa was originally 
founded at Port Elizabeth. In May 1904, the head- 
quarters were removed to Johannesburg. 

The head Executive consists of nine Stewards, all of 
whom must reside in Johannesburg and are appointed as 
follows : two to represent the Tratisvaal, two for Natal, one 
for the Orange River Colony, one for the Western Pro- 
vince, one for the Eastern Province and one for Griqua- 
land West and Rhodesia ; the ninth Steward being elected 
by the members of the Club. 

In addition to this there are Local Executive Stewards, 
with headquarters at Durban, Bloemfontein, Capetown, Port 
Elizabeth and Kimberley, who control all regular racing in 


their respective districts, subject to a right of appeal to the 
JohaDQesburg Executive. 

The membership of the Club is limited to 200. 

The race-course of the Johannesburg Turf Club, which 
was formed in 1S87 is situated 2^ miles from the Market 
Square, and is one mile seven furloQgs round, with a 
straight run in of four furlongs. 

Area of Course, 150 acres. Number of Members, 380. 

The affairs of the Club are in the hands of fifteen 
Stewards, who are elected annually. H. T. M. B. 














Associations and Clubs. 

A large proportion of residents in Johannesburg are 
immigrants from other lands who have been attracted by 
the hope of making money faster than they can make it 
elsewhere. In their intervals of work they seek the society 
of their own countrymen, and the slenderest local ties sufBce 
to establish eamaraderie. Thus there are Cambrian and 


Canadian Societies not restricted to Welsh-born or 
Canadian -born members, an Association of the " Two 
Roses," not confined to Lancashire lads and Yorkshire 
men, and a Society of Cornishmen with very liberal views 
as to where the boundary line of nativity should be drawn. 
By-and-bye, when representatives of the various English 
counties become still more numerous on the Rand the 
qualifications for membership may be made more stringent^ 
but the first thought of every man who comes to the Rand 
is to find some friends to talk to who have ideas in common 
with his own. Of course there is a Caledonian Society, 
more or less restricted to Scotsmen ; and each European 
nation, Italian, French, German, etc., has its own special 
club or home. 

Besides the associations that are based on patriotism 
there are others that arise from kindred occupations or 
associations. Cricket and football associations are legion ; 
nearly every school boy or office messenger belongs to 
some such club. If he does not he forms a club of his own 
and gets other boys to join. Of ctiurse there are gun clubs, 
kennel clubs, golf clubs, hockey clubs, chess clubs, turf and 
other clubs apparently without eJid, and richer members 
of the community who are asked to be patrons of them all 
are not to be envied for their correspondence. Debating 
societies spring up in connection with the churches, and 
people with literary and artistic pursuits have not been 
slow to follow the fashion. Indeed, every kind of asso- 
ciation has flourished on the Rand just because there has 
been until recently so very little home life. The man who 
lodges in an attic of a six-storied building and takes his meals 
at a restaurantjhas few other means of passing his time when 
the day's work is done. Therefore Freemasons, Oddfellows^ 
Buffaloes, Good Templars and other semi-secret societies 
abound on the Rand out of all proportion to the population 
when compared with the membership of those organisations 
in England. 

Then there are the associations for the protection of 
commercial interests, which wield so great an influence 
that Government officials rarely see a day pass without 
some protest or appeal or suggestion reaching them from 


the Chamber of Mines (Gold Mine Co. 'a), or ihe Chamber 
of Trade (wholesale merchants), or the Chamber of Com- 
merce {retail merchants). Masters combine to protect 
themselves against their employees. Every kind of handi- 
craft has its Trade Union, and woe betide the " blackleg " 
who acts independently. Hairdressers, licensed victuallers, 
. builders, architects, lawyers, accountants, estate agents, 
etc., each have their " Trade Society " ; many have a build- 

ing in which to meet, and some have their own weekly or 
monthly newspaper, and even their own co-operative store. 
If a man comes from England where he has been used 
to such organisations, he expects to find them in Johannes- 
burg. If he does not find them he inaugurates them. It 
is just the same with religious opinions. If a man has 
belonged to a Baptist congregation in the homeland and 
does not find a similar place of worship in the villagt where 
his work lies, he looks about for other Baptists until he 
farms the nucleus of a congregation. The club fever baa 


been caught by the women also, a Ladies' Calling Club 
being the newest symptom. 

Finally there are the usual social clubs, the political 
clubs, and the gambling clubs. The last-named need not 
be detailed ; the political clubs have only lately begun to 
arise in view of possible Party Government in the near 
future, but the large social clubs in the city compel 

First in point of affluence, age and membership is 
The Rand Club^ which was founded in 1887 by a number of 
men iJ^ho had been associated in Kimberley. It has 
recently built magnificent new premises at the corner of 
Commissioner and Loveday Streets at a cost of ^120,000^ 
and its assets are worth at least half a million sterling. 
The furniture and appointments imported from England 
are of the most comfortable character, and the membership 
roll extends to nearly 1,500 names. There are 60 bed- 
rooms on the upper floors; the general dining-room will 
accommodate 350 guests, the library (over 4,000 volumes) 
is the best in the city, and every facility is given to mem- 
bers to entertain their friends privately. The entrance fee 
is 55 guineas and the annual subscription twelve guineas. 
It is the club of the Mining Houses and the Stock Exchange, 

Loveday Street is the Pall Mall of the Rand. Nearly 
opposite the palace just referred to is The New Clv^ 
(entrance fee fifty-five guineas, subscription twelve guineas). 
There are over 1,200 members. This is the commercial 
club of the city, but many of its members divide their 
favours with the older club acrc|gs the street. There are 
only a few bedrooms for the accommodation of country 
members who may be visiting Johannesburg on business^ 

Since the war there has been a large influx of young 
men from England with limited means and scholastic 
associations. For these the costliness of the Rand or the 
New Club amounted to a prohibition, nor were the pre- 
vailing interests identical. Then it occurred to a few 
Government officials that a social club for people with 
educational qualifications would meet a felt want. A site 
was acquired in Klein Street, between Smit and Wol- 
marans Streets on Hospital Hill, and a commodious build- 



ing erected in the Dutch style of domestic acchitecture. 
This is known as the Athenaeum Club. It was opened in 
February 1904, The qualifications for membership are 
education at an English public school or university, 
interpreted so as not to exclude any army of&cer or civil 
servant who may be considered a desirable member. The 
entrance fee is twenty guineas, and the annual subscription 
eight guineas. There ^e over 700 members already. 


A feature of this club is that ladies are admitted as guests, 
for whose accommodation a special dining rooHi and a 
drawing room, approached from a separate entrance, are 
set apart. The Lieutenant-Governor of the Transvaal 
Colony is President of the Athenaeam Club. 

The Trades Hall, shown on a previous page, was built 
for the artisans as the headquarters of the Trade Unions, 
of which there are fifteen in the city. It was opened in 
May 1905. The Recreation Hall is very commodioua, 
and is a source of much enjoyment Xq fe^ -wavtaftaTi ^sA- 


r their families. Tliere were about 600 members at the time 
' of writing this account. 

A more recent addition to Johannesburg Clubland is 
ilding at the junction of Claim and Plein Streets, near 
the Freemasons' Temples, built for the Liederkrantz 
Society of German gentlemen. It was opened in July 
1905, and is very sumptuously appointed. 


The Goldfields Club at the comer of Rissik and Jeppe 
[ Streets was opened in November 1903. It has 500 mem- 
kbers, some of whom are excellent chess players. 
I The Roman Catholics have built for themselves a 

f social club, which has over 400 members ; the men belong- 
ing to St. Mary's Church (Anglican) are contemplating a 
similar enterprise; and the Young Men's Christian Asso- 
1 has Jong been a popular institution. 


Johannesburg Theatres. 

His Majesty's Theatre in Commissioner Streets ppposite 
the Carlton Hotel, is the newest and princip^^ place of 
amusement at present in Johannesburg. It was opened in 
July 1903. For some time past it has been used almost 
entirely for the representation of musical comedies of the 
type which has its home in the London * Gaiety.' The 
population of Johannesburg is not yet large enough to 
support very long runs, but a good production can be 
certain 6f payable business for at least a month ; miners 
from all parts of the main reef helping materially to keep 
things going. Trains are very convenient for them. 

Next in present importance is the Standard Theatre^ 
adjoining the General Post Office. It has been open since 
1890, at which time it competed with two others that are no 
longer in existence. One was called the Royal and the 
other the Queen's. There was also the Globe Theatre, 
which has been rebuilt as The Empire for Variety Music 
Hall business. This has succeeded so well that a new and 
grander " Empire " will shortly be built, nearly opposite to 
His Majesty's. All the theatres are comfortably, and even 
luxuriously, furnished. The Gaiety is a small theatre built 
soon after the Standard, It is now used for Yiddish plays 
and amateur productions. 

Most of the companies now performing in South 
Africa are touring combinations from England. Messrs. 
B. & F. Wheeler, Messrs. Sass & Nelson and Mr. Leonard 
Rayne are the leading entrepreneurs. They practically 
control between them everything theatrical outside the music 
faalls, but each of those firms has its recognised department. 
Messrs. Wheeler look after musical comedy, Messrs. Sass & 
Nelson light comedy and Mr. Rayne the legitimate drama. 
The Empire Palace Company similarly control the halls. 

The enterprise of these firms has enabled some of the 
best talent of England to visit South Africa profitably. 
The most noted actors and singers who have been seen and 
heard in Johannesburg include Messrs. Edward Terry, 
Lionel Brough, William Barrett, Harry NichoUs, Huntley 
Wright, Ben Davis, Santley and'Signor Foli, The ladies 
JDcJude Mesdames Albani, Kale \a.M^^xv^ v:^^\sk<vksi^ 



Ward, Marguerite Maclntyre, Jennie Lee, Ada Crossley, 
Agnes Delaporte, Amy Grace and Madame Pasquali. One ] 
result of the vfsits of such well-known entertainers is that 
nothing which is not first-rate has the slightest chance of 
support. A standard of excellence has been set which is 
at times hard to maintain, and the constant expense of 
transporting fresh players and scenery has to be met by 
high prices for admission. The popular and traditional pit 
has, therefore, been abolished in Johannesburg. 


Transvaal Post Office. 

The following statements extracted from the report of i 
he Post^master- General for the year ending June 30 
904, will give some idea of the volume of business, 

1.574.354 ii,4''9.6o8 
217,662 188,912 
1,916,238 5,879,900 
49,550 185,594. - 

If Tra»5i 

Letters and Postcards 

Registered Packets 240.370 

-Neifspapers, Samples, Sc 2,845,722 

-ParceJs 69,876 

transvaal handbook. 77 

Money Orders Issued and Paid. 

No. Amount. No. Amount. 

;C s. d. ^ s. d. 

1903-4: 331,100... 1,357,569 13 2— 93,366... 382,932 I O 

Savings Bank Deposits and Withdrawals. 

No. Amount. No. Amount. 

;^ s. d. ;C s. d. 

1903-4: 114,645. ..1,386,233 5 4 — 59,282... 1,196,468 12 6 

TELEGRAMS. — For warded 1903- 1904: Inland, 1,304,003 ; 
forwarded cablegrams, 55,043 ; transmitted (all classes), 
839*673 ; received (all classes), i,35i»538- Total, 3»550>257. 

TELEPHONES. — The number of exchange connections 
on June 30, 1904, was 1,554. ^^ addition there were 264 
extensions and 188 private wires. The daily connections 
at the Johannesburg exchange frequently number 28,000. 

Recreation Grounds. 

Although Johannesburg is not too generously provided 
with parks and breathing spaces, its needs in this respect 
have not been overlooked in its rapid growth. Hitherto, 
these have been little more than barren spots, surrounded 
with the ubiquitous eucalyptus and harbourers of dust. 
During the last two years the Town Council has en- 
deavoured to improve these public spaces by laying out 
and planting them in a suitable manner. 

Joubert Patk^ about 40 acres in extent, is situated 
immediately to the north of the railway line between 
Wilhelm Street and Twist Street. It was first laid out in 
1889. Eucalyptus and acacia trees had been so liberally 
planted that they threatened to consume all the virtue of 
the ground. A scheme is in progress for improving this 
park by removing many of the original trees and substi- 
tuting others of a more ornamental eViat^cXet. ^^^'ashNa* 


and trees are to bear correct designations. Over 2,000 
different varieties have been planted. The conservatories, 
which are in a somewhat dilapidated condition, will soon 
be replaced by much larger buildings. A kiosk is in course 
of erection at a cost of £"4,000, and ^650 will be spent on 
a band stand to accommodate 50 players. 

Union Ground. — Due south of Joubert Park, on the 
south side of the line, is a much smaller, but very popular 

recreation reserve known as the Union Ground. It is a 
first rale playground for old and young men, and on half- 
holidays wears a lively appearance, as our illustration shows. 
^<r/-ma««£f;4i/r;/H/'tf?^, 21 oacres in extent, was presented 
to the town in 1902 by the Braamfontein Company, the 
owners of the Sachsenwald Estate, of which it forms a 
portion. Five acres have been put aside by the Town 
Councii as an arbor nursery, and over a million seedling 
trees are being reared to meet future demands of Johannes- 
burg parks. The few animals already installed here form 
. iiff nucleus of a zoological collection, ■wh\tVi,\\.\s, Nvo"je&,i 



will be lai^ely increased as soon as suitable buildings have 
been erected for the purpose. 

Milner Park is at present a large tract of barren 

fx)und comprising 260 acres and situated north-east of 
raamfontein between the Hospital Hill ridge and Park- 
town west. Designs for laying out the whole area are now 
being called for. A sum of ^60,000 will be spent on the 
park during the next six years. 


Jeppt Park. — South of the railway line, was remodelled 
in August 1905 and provided with a fountain. It is a 
popular playground for children. 

The Oval, Jeppestown, was laid out in 1896. It was 
remodelled and plant&d in September 1904. In this park 
stands a monument erected to the memory of the founder 
of Jeppestown. 

TroyevilU Park is six acres in extent. Since this park 
was handed over to the town, the voracious eucalypti have 
been removed and their places rc-planted with other trees. 

End Park, situated in an angle formed by the junction 
of End Street and Nugget Street, is divided into four 


portions and is intersected by the railway. The southern 
and largest portion was kid out in 1903, the remaining 
sections are now being laid out according to fresh designs. 
Three tennis courts have been constructed on this ground 
by the Town Council. 

City and Suburban /"uri.— This open space adjoins the 
mine of the same name, and is in course of being laid out. 

Rotunda Park, Turffontein, ten acres in extent, is now 
being properly laid out and planted with roses and flowering 



shrubs. In addition to the above parks, there are seventeen 
public spaces in various oullying townships of the munici- 
pal area, but none have as yet been talteo in hand by the 
Parks Committee of the Town Council, The planting of 
trees in the streets has engaged the attention of this Com- 
mittee, and will be started as soon as the necessary tree- 
guards have been secured. A good selection of trees has I 
already been purchased for this purpose, and a start will bo 1 
made with 1,500 trees during the coming season. 

A. H. S. 


Fran ken wald. 
This estate, which is situated some eleven miles to the 
north of Johannesburg and about four miles north-west of 
the Dynamite Factory, Modderfoutein, has recently been 
presented to the Transvaal Government in trust for the 
people of the Colony by Mr. Alfred Beit. It comprises 
2,600 acres, of which 1,600 acres represent Mr. Beit's 
actual donation, the remainder having been purchased by 


the Government in accordance with the terms of the 
gift. Of the total area 800 acres are accounted for by 
plantations and roads; some 155 acres are at present under 
the plough, while there are 25 acres of vineyards, six of 
orchards, six of vegetable gardens and four acres of 
nurseries. Ten years ago the estate resembled the sur- 
rounding veld, save for a solitary willow and an old Duteh 
homestead. To-day it forms a striking illustration of 
what skill and perseverance can accomplish in utilizing the 
rich soil of the Transvaal. 



Frankenwald is to be devoted to educational purposes, 
and it has been suggested that it should be the site of the 
future Transvaal University. At present it remains what 
it was under its late owner, an experimental farm. 

Johannesburg Public Library. 
In order to understand the present develop: 
constitution of the Public Library, it is necessary to call 
to mind some incidents in its career since it began to have 
a history of its own. This history may be held to date as 
iar back as 1 889. The need for a, literary resort was keenly 
felt by some of the early pioneers, and on March 20, 1889, 
a pubUc meeting was held under the presidency of Sir 
Thomas Scanlen. This meeting unanimously decided in 
favour of the proposed library, and a committee was 
appointed. In order that the matter should take practical 
shape, a public subscription was opened, and donations to 
the amount of about ^700 were received. Rooms were 
secured in the Y.M.C.A. building in Pritchard Street, and. 


the Library, then in the day of small things, was sent on 
its way rejoicing. The number of volumes amounted to 
about 1,000, representing all classes of literature. As years 
went on, the popularity of the Library grew by leaps and 
bounds, so much so that the committee had to face the 
question of providing a suitable building. Over ;^7,ooo was 
collected for that purpose, and in 1898, the first portion of the 
present building was erected at a cost of ;^i 5,000. The 
stock of books increased until in the pre-war year the num- 
ber exceeded 9,000 volumes. After the war, the popularity 
of the Library increased with great rapidity. 

For the year ending 1898, the number of subscribers 
amounted to 750. For the year ending 1904, the number 
exceeded 1400. In like manner the resources of the 
Library increased, and the total income at the end of 1904 
was ;^5,584, as against ;^i,8i4 at the end of 1898. The 
past two years have seen quiet but steady expansion. 
The Seymour scientific section deserves attention. It 
was formed to perpetuate the memory of the late 
Major Seymour of the Railway Pioneer Regiment. For 
this purpose a sum of over ;^i 1,000 was subscribed. 
Although still in its infancy, this section promises to be 
one of the most valuable collections of scientific books in 
South Africa. 

The need for a Free Reading Room in Johannesburg 
had been keenly felt, but want of funds prevented the 
committee from opening such a room prior to 1904. In 
consequence, however, of an increased grant from the 
Government, and a grant from the Town Council, a room 
was provided and declared open by Lord Milner on 
December 19, 1904. The crowded state of the room ever 
since its opening is the best justification the Committee 
could desire. 

Every effort is being made to bring the collection of 
books in the Lending and Reference Libraries up-to-date, 
but this will take time. For the year ending 1904 
over 3,000 volumes were added to the shelves. A glance 
at the works added will show that the committee are 
prudent in their selection giving special heed to those motft 
valuable and costly works in a\\ depaxtavw\\s» oV \^^fc\.•a^^»fe^ 


which few can afford to buy and possess, but which 
many are glad to have the opportunity to borrow or refer 
to. A new catalogue is now in preparation and the books 
have been classified on the most approved methods. 

The Johannesburg Public Library owes its present 
state of efficiency to a few citizens who through good and 
bad times have never remitted their efforts to make it a 
a living force in the community. Much has been done, but 
much remains to be done. All that the Library Committee 
desire to obtain in this important branch of educational 
work is active sympathy and intelligent public interest. 
By this alone will their work attain the results they hope for* 

Transvaal Technical Institute. 

In August, 1902, on the invitation of the then Director 
of Education, the Witwatersrand Council of Education 
co-operated with the Education Department to confer as to 
the best means of promoting Technical Education in the 
Transvaal. It was then agreed that a great need existed 
for the highest kind of technical education and that 
Johannesburg was the proper centre for it. It was alsa 
urged that such technical instruction should be considered 
as part of a larger scheme, in fact, a Teaching University 
was the desired goal — and that a Commission should be 
appointed to consider the best means of bringing into exist- 
ence such an institution. 

The Commission was appointed on January 2, igo^* 
It held nine meetings, two of which were public, for 
the purpose of hearing evidence, and in the following July 
presented a Report, which was signed by twenty-nine 
Commissioners. Only one Commissioner dissented, and he 
drew up a " minority report " ; but his only objection was 
based on the possibility of the permanent university being 
built elsewhere than in Johannesburg. Three cardinal 
measures were recommended by the Commission : — (a} 
Temporary premises for technical, scientific, and literary 
education in Johannesburg (d) a permanent institution of the 
nature of a polytechnic, and (c) the subsequent but eatl^ 
estabJisbment of a Teaching XJniveisVX.^. T>j\^ x^^-aN. \q5^ *^^ 


Teaching University is Birmingham — as a centre of in- 
<iustry — rather than Oxford or Cambridge, with their 
antiquity and comparative seclusion. The recommendations 
of that Commission were at once adopted by the Govern- 
ment, " so far as funds at disposal would allow,** and a 
<:orporate body was appointed under the title of Transvaal 
Technical Institute, which held its first sitting on September 
8, 1903. The first thing done was to establish classes for 
the 3rd and 4th years* courses of the South African School 
of Mines at Johannesburg, in temporary buildings on Von 
Brandis Square. This put an end to the Kimberley School 
of Mines. The next thing to be done was to provide suit- 
able accommodation for the Technical Institute; and the 
Government accepted the suggestion to set aside Plein 
Square for the purpose. One-half of the Square is 
occupied for the time being by the Municipal Offices. The 
vacant half was put at the Institute's disposal. Money for 
the somewhat primitive one-storey, barn-like, temporary 
premises was borrowed from the Government (;^7,50o). 
About 60 students are at present under instruction, whose 
fees constitute but a very small proportion of the cost of 
conducting the Institute. Government, however, has 
promised ;^8,ooo a year towards current expenses, and the 
Witwatersrand Council of Education has promised a further 
;^4,5oo yearly. When the Town Hall has been built on 
the Market Square, the rest of Plein Square will be at the 
disposal of the Institute. By that time it will be known 
how far the Government and the public are willing to pro- 
vide for a permanent building. The present buildings are 
only wood and iron shanties, but the fittings will be found 
as complete and costly as in old country institutions. 

The ordinary work of the Institute is done in the day- 
time ; but the evening classes are arranged in all the 
subjects of study. The buildings are within two minutes* 
walk of Park Station, and students are allowed to travel at 
half-fare, so that there is no difficulty experienced by non- 
residents of Johannesburg from the standpoint of accessi- 
bility. A hall of residence is, however, provided at Highfield 
Terrace, Doornfontein, with accommodation for 50 students. 
T'Ae hall of residence is under the conUoV ol «^N<I^.x^^xv ^xA 


Dean. The Seymour Section of the Public Library is at 
the disposal of students, but a library at the Institute is 
much to be desired. For the day work the fees are £^2 
• per year. For evening classes one guinea per term for each 
subject. Sectional evening classes are held at Pretoria, 
Roodepoort, Krugersdorp, Boksburg and Potchefstroom ; 
supervised by the Professors from Johannesburg, Corres- 


pondence classes are to be instituted for the more distant 
districts of Volksrust, Pietersburg, Standerton and Heidel- 
berg until such time as it may be practicable to organise 
regular classes. It will be seen that there is plenty of work 
before the Institute, and no one can question the present 
and future advantage which the Transvaal will derive from 
this earnest endeavour to provide the best possible training 
for our young men within easy reach of their homes and 
their work. C N.,V.. 


The Rand Water Supply. 

When the Municipality of Johannesburg first came into 
existence in May, 1901, it was faced by the fact that 
the water supply was in the hands of a private company, 
which had the power to charge 40s. per thousand gallons, 
and actually did charge los. per thousand gallons to the 
•consumer. The height of the ridge on which the city is 
built made it clear that the water supply would always 
be a serious element in the cost of living. At the same 
time, as regards the mining areas, there was no compre- 
hensive scheme in hand which would secure a sufficient 
supply to feed the batteries which would be erected in the 
course of the next few years. 

In July, 1 90 1, the Town Council of Johannesburg, 
after consultation with the Chamber of Mines, approached 
the Government and suggested the appointment of a Com- 
mission to investigate whether the domestic and industrial 
water supply of the Rand should not be entrusted to a 
single public body, with powers to deal with the whole area 
from Randfontein to Springs. The Commission appointed 
in 1902 reported in favour of this proposal. After some 
delay an Ordinance was passed under whiph the Rand 
Water Board was constituted a statutory body, consisting 
lialf of members representing the Municipalities interested 
and half of members representing the Mining interest, with 
a chairman appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor. The 
Commission recommended that, owing to the difficulty of 
finding a homogeneous security upon which the Board could 
borrow money, the necessary funds should be raised on a 
"Government guarantee. The Government was unable to 
^ive effect to this recommendation, and the Water Board 
accordingly drafted an elaborate measure which empowered 
them to raise the necessary funds and to secure the loan on 
the rateable value of the whole area, including the mines, 
and overcame the difficulty raised by the fact that mining 
claims were exempted from rating for ordinary Municipal 
purposes. Provision was also made for the reconstitution 
of the Board and for the expropriation of all existing 
ynterests. The measure proceeded vet'y cYos^^Vj otiWv^ lines 


of the Metropolis Water Act of 1902, by which the London 
Water Board was established and under which the expro- 
priation of the Water Companies has been effected. There 
is one important difference in principle, however, between 
the London and the Rand Water Boards. In Loadon it is 
the duty of the Water Board not only to obtain water in 
bulk but also to supply to the consumer in retail. The^ 
Rand Water Board, on the other hand, has nothing to do 
with a retail domestic ^pply. Its functions aib^ confined 
to obtaining water and supplying it in bulk either to in- 
dividual mines or to any of the six Municipalities into 
which the Witwatersrand is divided. The distribution of 
the water so supplied is left to the Mining Company or the 
Municipality. This measure is of great importance to the 
Rand because it will enable water to be supplied not only 
at cost price, without any margin of profit, but also, by 
dealing with the problem on a vast and comprehensive scale,^ 
will secure that the main supplies are obtained in the 
cheapest possible manner. But to the country at large it 
is of even greater importance. Had each of the six Muni- 
cipalities and each group of mines been left to obtain water 
independently of one another they would, in the first place,^ 
have been driven to obtain their supplies either by boring 
into the dolomite or from the actual springs which issued 
from the same formation. The Witwatersrand would, in a 
word, have been driven to rely, for its ultimate supply, on 
the natural storage of the country which might have become 
so depleted as to seriously affect the springs and rivers upon 
which its agriculture depends. It would in fact have been 
drawing upon the capital reserve fund of the country in the 
shape of water. Now, however, that all water consumers 
on the Rand have been federated under a single body, the 
joint supply which it will be necessary for that body to 
obtain will be so large as to render it financially possible 
for a dam to be constructed at the outlet of a large catch- 
ment area so as to impound during the rainy season waters 
which would otherwise run off down the rivers and be 
lost to the country. In a word this general scheme enables 
the Rand to add to the water capital of the country by 
means of storage, instead of diminishm^ \.\i"aX c"a:^\\a^'^^ 


drawing upon the natural stores in the dolomite. The 
sums paid for acquiring and consolidating the various pri- 
vate water rights amounted to ;^2, 200,000, and for this 
purpose, together with a further ;^ 1,200,000 for extension 
of works, a public loan of ;^3 ,400,000 was issued on Govern- 
ment security. — From Government Reports, 


(Transvaal Meteorological Department.) 

The Government Observatory is situated on the ridge 
of hills famous as the Witwatersrand. It is i\ miles, as 
the crow flies, E. N.E. from the General Post Office. This 
institution was established by the Government on the 
initiative of the local branch of the South African Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science. It was hoped that 
the Government might be able to start an observatory, both 
for the studies of the meteorological and astronomical 
sciences, but at that time (1902) the Government could only 
accede so far as a meteorological department was concerned. 

It is hoped by the leading citizens and people 
interested in Science, that the Government may soon be 
able to equip the Observatory with a powerful telescope. 
The fine site and its situation in a clear and brilliant atmos- 
phere, some 5,900 feet above sea-level, would render such 
an addition to the altogether too meagre list of powerful 
telescopes in the Southern Hemisphere, one of unusual 

The site was partly presented by a Dutch family. 
Neighbouring land was purchased so as to secure the Ob- 
servatory against encroachment. The Meteorological Depart- 
ment is at present in full working order. The Observatory 
itself was formally opened by H. E.Lord Milner, on Jan. 17, 
1905, when Sir David Gill, the Mayor of Johannesburg 
{Mr. Geo. Goch), Mr. T. Reunert, President of the South 
African Association for the Advancement of Science, and 
many others were present. It is fully equipped with the 
latest self-recording instruments. The Observatory also 
acts as head-quarters for a body of 300 to 400 voluntary 



I observers in all parts of the Transvaal. One annual report 
has been published and the report for the season July I, 
1904 to June 30, 1905, is now being prepared for press. 

The chief defect of the Johannesburg climate, an indirect 
one due principally to the long dry season, is undoubtedly 
its dustiness, which at times is excessive. There are great 
hopes that in course of time a means of abating this evil 
will be found. If a similar dry period occurred in England, 
the dust-fiend would, we may be sure, be equally active. 


The following table gives figures derived from the 
first twelve months' work at the Observatory ; — 











Inches Days 



















































82- -i 




















































































59-2 1 68-8 49-6 




Taking the climate of Toulouse, as typical of the 
famous health resorts on the Mediterranean, a comparison 
between it and that of Johannesburg Observatory shows 
that in every way that of Johannesburg is superior. 

Warmest month 








Highest Temperature ... 



Lowest „ 



Absolute Range 


Cloudiest month (o-io) 9 a.m 

■ 5*5 





The figures for Toulouse are 

for 1 901 

the latest year 

available. The annual sunshine 

at Johannesburg exceeds 

that of.tbe Riviera by 720 hours. 


T. A. I. 


Hospitals of the Transvaal. 

Except in Johannesburg, where a considerable share of 
the cost is met by local contributions, the maintenance of 
Hospitals has hitherto been defrayed by the Colonial 
Treasury. It is in contemplation to change this system 
for one which will give local authorities a measure of 
responsibility for the support of hospitals and also for their 
management. The Hospital of Johannesburg originated in 
1888, when tents used for hospital purposes were pitched 


on the present site. Since that date the buildings forming 
the present hospital have been erected from time to time by 
means of subscriptions, donations and Government grants. 
The site, about 12 acres in extent, was reserved by the 
Government for Hospital purposes. The normal accom- 
modation of the Hospital amounts to 298 beds, of which 
66 are for natives. Additiotial accommodation has been 
provided for 39 Europeans and 23 native patients in 
marquees in the Hospital grounds. The Stroyan Block, 
shortly to beerected, will provide beds foe about ^'i'^aXvBDte>. 


When this block is completed the marquees will no longer 
be used. The Hospital is at present administered by at 
Board of lo members appointed by the Government. The 
revenue for the i8 months from January i, 1903, to June 
30, 1904, was ;^27,2(58 from fees, ;^5o,50o Government 
grant, £^fisi subscriptions and donations, total ;^87,425. 

The expenditure during the same period was ;^8o,i49 
on maintenance and general expenses, ;^6,309 on permanent 
works, furniture, fittings, etc., and ;^3i on library, , total 

In addition to the General Hospital most of the mines 
have hospitals for the treatment of their own employees, 
and there are a few small private hospitals and nursing 
homes in Johannesburg. The C.S.A.R. has established a 
small hospital at Doornfontein for the treatment of its 
employees who fall sick or meet with accidents. It is 
generally quite full. E. S. C. 

Cottage Hospitals have been built in many of the 
smaller towns. In some instances these were started to 
meet military requirements and have been continued to 
serve general local needs. In other instances gold-mining 
companies have joined with the general public in providing 
an hospital, but in all such cases hitherto the maintenance 
has been materially aided by grants from Government. All 
the mines have hospital provision for their coloured 
labourers, for the cost of which the companies are alone 

Johannesburg Cemetery. 

The main entrance to the general cemetery is a full 
mile from the Market Square, through Braamfontein. It 
is controlled by the Municipality. The area is about 160 
acres, being half -a- mile square. At present about 20,000 
white persons have been buried in rather more than 15,000 
graves. The cosmopolitan character of the city is well 
evidenced by the arrangement of the ground into separate 
sections for people of distinct creeds. The largest sections 
are for the Anglican, Roman Catholic aqd Dutch Reformed 
commumtits. British non- Episcopalians have a section to 


themselves. Small sections are set apart for the military, 
the police (including the S.A.C.) and the Fire Brigade. 
Hebrews have a separate enclosure and make their own 
arrangements for interments. 

Malays (Mohammedans) also have a separate en- 
closure and bury according to their racial customs. 
Christian Kaffirs have a place apart from " raw " Kaffirs, 
and the Cape *' coloured " people are also kept distinct. 
Indians have a place to themselves and so have the Chinese. 
Some curious native customs are in evidence at the Chinese 
graves, particularly the joss sticks, feet towards the west, 
and Chinese characters on the tombstones. 

The European portion of the cemetery is well laid out 
in walks and thickly planted with cypress and other trees. 
The monuments are of average excellence and great 
variety. There are no ridiculous epitaphs. There are 
two public monuments worth attention — one of a small 
granite obelisk in memory of seventy-five white and 
coloured people who " lost their lives " through the 
explosion of some trucks of dynamite at Braamfontein 
siding on February 19, 1896. The other is erected to the 
officers, non-commissioned officers and men of the ist 
Battalion (xxx) and volunteer companies of the East 
Lancashire Regiment who *' lost their life ** during the 
South African War, 1899- 1902, which shows that the 
number killed in action (22) was nothing like so great as 
the number (52) who died of diseases. 

There are many soldiers' graves; and the Loyal 
Women's Guild visit and decorate them on the Sunday 
nearest to All Soul's Day. The Municipality undertakes the 
care of them. 

The cemetery is much too small for the needs of 
Johannesburg, and at the present rate of interment the 
general sections will be full in less than three years. The 
Municipality has advertised for a suitable suburban 
estate, and failing to get one a portion of the large farm 
belonging to the Municipality at Klipspruit will probably 
be used for the purpose. The general appearance and 
upkeep of the cemetery has been greatly improved since 
the war. CL. ^^.\-.. 



The Fort. 

One of the finest sites in Johannesburg is at presenir 
occupied by " The Fort." It was originally a small 
gaol ; but, as a result of the Jameson Raid, it was enlarged 
and fortified by the Boer Government. The new works 
were completed in 1897. A detachment of the Staats 
Artillerie then took possession and two Krupp guns were 
trained on the town as a stern warning and reminder for 
the inhabitants. With the British occupation of Johannes- 
burg the Fort and its immediate surroundings continued to 
serve the double purpose of prison and barracks, until the 
end of 1902, when the few remaining regular troops in the 
town were transferred to other quarters. The Fort is now 
used exclusively as a prison but is very inadequate. M. B. 

Police Statistics. 

An extraordinary number of evilly-disposed persons 
have looked upon Johannesburg as a field for lawlessness, 
but the police administration is gradually overtaking them. 
During April, 1905, the number of cases of offences reported 
in the Johannesburg Municipal Area, the number of 
arrests and the number of convictions were as follow : — 


Murder and Homicide 

• • • 







Housebreaking and tl 
Housebreaking and t 
Theft, horse 

1 • 


• • • 

by day... 
i by night 

• • • 








Theft, cattle 



Theft by fraud 




Theft, ordinary 
Liquor Law 

















Rape Cases 
Gold Law 














The following pages are intended as a brief guide to 
the Towns and Districts into which the rest of the Transvaal 
is divided for commercial and administrative purposes. 

The following is a list of Municipalities for the Transvaal 
which have been created up to date under the provisions of 
the Municipalities Elections Ordinance. 

Date of Gazette, 

Date of Gazette, 

Boksburg ... 25/9/03 

Klerksdorp ... 25/9/03 

Barberton ... 29/1/04 

Middelburg ... 25/9/05 

Germiston ... 9/10/03 

Pietersburg ... 25/9/05 

Heidelberg ... 25/9/03 

Potchefstroom ... 2/1 0/05 

Krugersdorp ... 25/9/03 

Standerton ... 25/9/05 

In addition to these the following Urban District 
Boards were also established : — 








Lichtenburg ... 


Machadodorp ... 


Piet Retief 

























Potgietersrust ... 4/3/04 
Roodepoort- Florida 

Maraisburg 16/10/05 
Rustenburg ... 16/10/03 
Schweizer Reneke 27/11/05 









These bodies by subsequent legislation have been 
converted into Municipalities of a modified type. 











Boksburg is an important mining, business and pleasure 
centre, situated fifteen miles east of Johannesburg, and, 
according to the census of 1904, had a population of 14,650 
within the municipal limits. The Municipality, with an 
area of over thirty-eight square miles, extends about six 
miles from east to west, and includes five railway stations: — 
Half- Way, Angelo, East Rand, Vogelfontein and Boksburg. 
The principal mining property in the Municipality is the East 
Rand Proprietary Mines. As a pleasure resort the town is 
rapidly coming to the front, as many as ten thousand ex- 
cursionists sometimes visiting the beautiful lake and park in 
a day. The lake is to be vested by the Government in the 
Town Council, which is about to carry out an elaborate 
scheme to enhance its attractions. Included in the pro- 
gramme is the construction of a pavilion, refreshment room 
and bandstand, the provision of jetties and boats, and the 
widening of the tree-shaded promenade round the lake. 
Vogelfontein station is only five minutes' walk from the 
lake. Sheets of water of any size are of very great value 
on the Rand, and must be made the most of. 

Municipal Government is vested in a Mayor and Town 
Council of fifteen members. There are English, Presby- 
terian, Dutch Reformed, Wesleyan and Baptist Churches. 

Entertainments are provided in the Assembly and 
Masonic Halls, and music is given at the Lake and on the 
Market Square at regular intervals by the Boksburg and 
District Band. 

Health statistics show that the death-rate is one of the 
lowest in the Transvaal. Stores of all kinds are plentiful, 
and as mining development is going ahead at a great rate 
on all sides of the town, Boksburg is considered to have an 
assured future before it, especially when the residential 
extensions contemplated are carried out. E. D. 

* The order in which the different Municipalities are dealt with in 
these pages accords with that adopted by the Government records, as in- 
dicated on page 97. An Alphabetical Index will be found in he pre- 
fatory pages. 



Height above sea-level, 2,800 feet. The town is 283 
miles by rail from Pretoria. 

Population of town, 1,205 white; 1,174 coloured. 
Population of district, exclusive of town, 2,803 white ; 2,411 

Historical. — Of the ancient history of the district little 
is known. The innumerable small heaps of stones on the 
flat between the town and Heslop's Creek and elsewhere, 
indicate the cultivation of the ground and the one-time occu- 
pation of the valley by a branch of the Basuto tribe ; further 
evidence of their presence is afforded by the schantzes built 
on the slopes and precipitous sides of the Kantoor. These 
people were driven out by the Swazies before the middle of 
the nineteenth century, and their descendants are now 
settled in Sekukuni's country. From the time of their ex- 
pulsion to the demarcation of Swaziland by the Boers, the De 
Kaap Valley formed a portion of the territory of the Swazi 
king. There exists one distinct trace of the presence of 
Bushmen in the district at a period anterior to *the occupa- 
tion by the Basuto, a small painting on a big rock lying on 
the hill near the donga that divides the town from Belgravia, 
one of its suburbs. It is a representation of a hunting 
scene, somewhat weather-beaten but still fairly clear. Its 
preservation may be accounted for by the fact that the 
painting has been protected in a great measure by its occupy- 
ing a hollow of the rock, probably worn by glacial action. 

The history of Barberton itself dates from 1886. Four 
years previously attention had been directed to the De 
Kaap Plateau and Valley by the reported discovery of gold. 
The presence of auriferous reefs v was soon confirmed, and in 
November, 1884, the country round Pioneers* Hill was pro- 
claimed a goldfield. In 1886 came the romantic discovery 
of the Sheba Mine. A prospector had seated himself one 
day on a piece of rock a few yards off the footpath which 
he and his colleagues had worn in the course of an 
unsuccessful search for gold, extending over many months. 
With a hammer he idly struck off a piece of the rock, which 
at once arrested his attention. He had discovered what 


has ever since been known as the Sheba Gold Mine. The 
phenomenal yield of this mine started the " gold fever " in 
South Africa. From all parts a rush was made to De 
Kaap, By the beginning of 1887 it was estimated that 
there were 10,000 people in the district, while Barberton 
was suddenly transformed from a congregation of huts into 
a town of considerable size, with hotels, public buildings, 

and subsequently two stock exchanges. Wild speculation 
and unscrupulous operations lead to the inevitable re- 
action, and the fate of Barberton was finally sealed by the 
steady development of the far richer Witwatersrand. 

The situation of the town, nestling in semi-circular 
form under the shelter of a spur of the Kaapsche Berg, is one 
of remarkable beauty. A striking view of the magnificent 
amphitheatre of De Kaap Valley is to be obtained; thib 


boid outline of the Duivel's Kantoor, nearly thirty miles 
away, showing clearly against the sky ; while the Devil's 
Knuckles, with its huge ridges well-defined, forms a 
prominent feature of the range. Other attractive spots in 
the neighbourhood are the Lomatie Falls and the Devil's 
Bridge. Shady creeks of great beauty seam the hills 
surrounding the town, In them abound giant thorns, 
eucalypti, cacti, aloes ([he pride of de Kaap), and an endless 
variety of ferns, including the tree fern, with other sub- 



tropical trees, plants, and flowers. For the naturalist,, 
especially the botanist and entomologist, the district pro- 
vides an exceptional field of interest. Good sport with the 
gun is also to be had, as game is plentiful. 

Agriculture. — Owing to the prevalence of h orse- sickness • 
and cattle-sickness, agriculture has been greatly hampered 
by inadequacy of transport. The fertility of the valley is 
beyond question. Citrous fruits are of excellent quality. 
Fru'}t-faim\ag affords a fine field for men of moderate- 


capital, who can bring experience and energ)- to bear. 
Fruits grown are granges, naartjes, sweet and Spanish 
lemons, guavas, limes, citrons, pompelmoos, mangoes, 
pawpaws, pineapples, peaches, grapes, bananas, etc. The 
suitability of the soil for tobacco culture has been demon- 
strated by the production of tobacco of marketable quality. 
This is an industry capable of considerable expansion. A 
great advantage possessed by the district is the mild winter 
climate, which admits of the cultivation of tomatoes and 
other vegetables at a time of the year when it is impossible 
to produce them elsewhere. 

Mineral Resources, — Apart from quartz-mining, there 
are possibilities of gold in payable quantities in the 
alluvial ground of the river-beds and the Kantoor, and 
increasing attention is being turned in this direction. 

Work has been begun on the magnesite deposits in the 
district, while immense coal-bearing areas have recently 
been pegged in the vicinity of Komati Poort. 

Health, — The once popular theory that Barberton is a 
hot-bed of fever may now be regarded as exploded. By 
the cultivation of the soil and efficient sanitary methods, 
malaria has been banished from the foot-hills, and danger 
of fever now lurks only in the low-lying areas and along 
the river banks. The climate is trying in summer but in 
winter it offers a desirable change to the cold of the high veld. 

Vital statistics for 1904 show the mortality rate for 
residents in the municipality to be only 5*85 per 1,000. 

Local Institutions. — Barberton Rifle Association, De 
Kaap Agricultural Society, the Caledonian Society, De 
Kaap Mine Managers' Association and a Chamber of 
Commerce — the first to be founded in the Transvaal. 


Local government has been successively under a 
Miners' Committee, a Sanitary Board, a Military Board, 
and a Health Board. Municipal institutions were granted 
in 1904. J. B. K. 

Kaapsche Hoop. 

Kaapsche Hoop^ the first proclaimed township of the 
Kaap Goldfields, was founded in 1882. It occu^vas ^'^ 


plateau of the mouDtain Daivel's K^otoor and was known 
as the " Kantoor." The nearest railway station is Godwao 
River, about 13 miles distant. 

Situated 2,000 feet above the Kaap Valley, it is mucb 
used as a summer resort from the fever -stricken districts 
just below. 

In the early mining days of 1882-1888 its population 
varied between 8,000 and 3,000, and it was the centre 
of administration for the Kaap Goldfielda until Barberton 

was founded in 1888. The population of Kaapsche Hoop 
now amounts to about 300. It was here, in 1888, that the 
famous " Kruger Nugget," weighing 36 lbs., was found. 

The prospect from the Kantoor Range is perhaps one 
of the most fascinating in South Africa, From an elevation 
of 2,000 feet, the whole Kaap Valley — an area of, approx- 
imately, 1,400 square miles — with its peculiar volcanic 
formations, can be seen as a panorama. The nature of the 
country is very mountainous, road making being almost 
Jmpossihie. During the summer months the Kantoor ie 



almost coQtmually enveloped in heavy fogs and mists, which, 
together with heavy rains, make an average monthly rain- 
fall of, aproximately, 10 inches. During the winter 
strong winds prevail. 

Alluvial digging forms the chief occupation of the 
residents of Kaapsche Hoop. This is mostly carried on 
by individuals, with the help of a native or two. The 
ground for alluvial purposes is rich but " patchy,", and, with 
a plentiful supply of water, a fair living might be made. 



The great difficulty, however, is the storing of the water, 
of which there is only a supply during the rainy season. 

Kaapsche Hoop is quite unsuited, on account of its 
elevation, for farming. In the valley, however, a large 
income is derived from tobacco- growing, which enterprising 
diggers use as a reserve occupation when gold-di^iti-'O''?,^'^ 
slack. Fruit-growing is also, to a Cfettaxti ^-(AaTvV, t-a-f^^ 
on in the valley. "^-V^"' 



Germiston Municipality. 

Municipal acea, 26 square miles. Population (as per 
provisional census return, 1904) : — White, 9,414 ; coloured, 
19,713^ — total, 29 127. 

When the activities and hopes produced by the pro- 
duction of gold at Barberton were beginnicg to wane, the 
richness of the gold-bearing reef on the Rand caused 
financiers, prospectors and merchants to hasten from all 
parts of South Africa, and before the end of the year 1886 


conglomerate gold -beds had been tapped all along what is 
now known as the Witwatersrand. 

Two merchants by the name of August Simmer and 

John Jack, carrying on business as general traders at 

Harrismith, Orange Free State, opiened another business in 

i88j at Lake Chrissie, but in addition to their ordinary 

J/'ne of trade they added a minint; department. Early in 

iSS6 Messrs. Simmer & Jack purchased V't\e Wttv "^Naxi^ 



fontein in the Witwalersrand district, floated the Simmer & 
Jack Gold Mining Company with a capital of ;£'75,ooo, and 
started operations with twenty-five stamps. With com- 
mendable foresight, they laid out a small township about 
a mile from the mine. The township was named Germiston. 
The name " Germiston " is taken from the farm 
Germiston, near Glasgow, where Mr. jack was born. A 
store, hotel and blacksmith's shop were established about 
this period, and this was the beginning of the now flourish- 



ing and large commercial centre, Germiston, 
largest town in the Transvaal Colooy. 

Fortunately, Germiston was in the direct line of route 
of the railway which was gradually creeping from the 
Cape to Pretoria, and joined the Rand Tram, as it was 
then called, which ran east and west along the reef. The 
railway from the Cape reached Germiston about the end ^A 
1892. The important junction oi E.\and?,ioT\\e\Tv ■wa.'s. fe-^-i 
formed, and this, added to the outcrop mmesx "«\i\'io. ■?t*sJCv- 


cally encircled the town, assured the prosperity of Germis- 
ton as a mining and railway centre. 

About the end of 1889 Messrs. Simmer & Jack sold 
their interests in the farm Elandsfontein to the Simmer 8c 
Jack Gold Mining Co., Ltd,, and thus commenced that 
huge mining proposition which gives to-day the Simmer 
& Jack Proprietary Mines, Ltd., of the Consolidated Gold- 
fields of South Africa, Ltd. group, the premier place in 
mining operations on the Rand. 

In 1896 fresh prospects were increased by the develop- 
ment of deep level mining, and the town was completely 
encircled by mining claims and operations, with the natural 
result that the area of the township being confined within 
this circle, the value of ground was considerably enhanced. 
The Geldenhuis Deep was the first deep level mine to start 
the production of gold. 

After the peace settlement Germiston began to be recog- 
nised as an important centre, and under the Municipal 
Corporations Ordinance of 1903 was established a Munici- 
pality, with Boksburg Municipality as its eastern and 
Johannesburg as its western boundary. 

The photographs above show one of the streets in 
Germiston in 1895, and the same street in 1905. They 
are interesting as showing the growth of this important 
mining town. J. M. 


The town is forty-two miles from Johannesburg. 
Urban population (1904 census): 1,838 white persons and 
1,381 coloured persons ; height above sea level, 5,029 feet. 

The present site of Heidelberg was laid out as a town- 
ship in 1 86 1. Although situated on the direct trade route 
from Durban to the interior, via Harrismith, the growth of 
the town was slow. In the war of 1 880-1 it came into 
prominence as the headquarters of the Boers, who had taken 
possession of it at an early stage in the struggle. The 
buj)dwg still stands, and part of the existing public 
o^ces, in which the Executive Council of those days met. 
^^© room in which the treaty that cons\\\.w\.ed \N\^ t^txxv^ 



of peace was signed by Sir Evelyn Wood and the Boer 
Triumvirate is also shown to-day. Of actual warfare the 
town has seen but little, for both in the war of i88o-i and 
in the later struggle it escaped being the scene of any 
conflict. A change in the fortunes of Heidelberg occurred 
with the active development of the Witwatersrand. Capital 
and population drifted into it, while, to meet its increasing 
requirements, the Boer Government expended considerable 
sums upon the erection of substantial buildings to serve as 

Law Courts, Post and Telegraph Offices, Mining Com- 
missioner's and Customs Offices, and a well-planned and 
handsome public school. 

Churches. — The Dutch Reformed Church forms the 
central and principal feature of the town. Besides this 
there are two other Dutch places of worship. The Anglican 
and Wesleyan Churches have been established in the com- 
munity for many years. The Roman Catholics have lately 
secured property and have established aconvewV^tii ^irfacsX, 
Native Missions are conducted by the o\4 e,ita'Ci\\'^«A."^- 
eran Church and by the Anglican and'^ea^e^^a.-a CWit-^i^- 


The periodical gatherings of the country people to 
attend sacrament still form a picturesque feature of Heidel- 
berg life, but owing to the rapid growth of many other 
centres and the establishment in these of churches, the 
"Nachtmaal " of to-day 
is but a faint echo of 
, what it used to be. 
' Mineral Wealth.— 

Heidelberg has had to 
live through many tan- 
talising experiences. 
Confident in its know- 
ledge that the district 
is traversed in all direc- 
tions by gold reefs, it 
has waited in vain to 
profit by some rich 
discovery in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood. 
The only mine that has 
entered upon a per- 
manently prosperous 
career in the Heidelberg 
district is the Nigel, 
situated some eight 
i north-east of the 
town. The Molyneux 
Mines and the Molyneux West Mine raised expectations 
at one time, but they are now closed down. The 
" Coronation Reef" is located in Heidelburg District. 

Coal mining is being profitably carried on at various 
points in the district. 

Local Institutions. — Educational establishments com- 
prise two Government schools (one fee-paying and the other 
free), the Convent school, and the Dutch " Volkschool ." The 
total attendances amount to about 450 pupils. 

The recruiting depot of the South African Constabulary 
is situated in the town. 

^^mr^»s. — On three sides the town is surrounded by 
vadalating ^ra-'JS- covered country, stretcViln^ a-wa^ \ctt wA*s>, 



but on the north-west it is protected by a range of rocky 
hills. Here the " Kloof," with its clear stream of water, 
its winding paths threading their way among mimosa trees, 
forms an idtal holiday resort. A. W. V. B, 


Population (1904 
census), 3,201 whites 
and 532 coloured ; 
height above sea level, 
4,350 ft.; 118 miles 
by rail from Johannes- 

Klerksdorp is sit- 
uated in the So boon - 
spruit Valley, 9 miles 
from the Vaal River, 
on the site of the 
earliest European set- 
tlement north of the 
Vaal River. 

A party of early 
Voortrekkers settled at 
Klerksdorp about 1838, 
and diverted a part of 
the Schoonspruit for irrigating their sowing lands on its 
western side at the foot of some rocky hills, and thus Klerks- 
dorp formed the nucleus of the European settlement in the 
Transvaal, which gradually spread in all directions from 
that point. In 1886 gold was discovered on the town lands 
of Klerksdorp, and two years later a great rush of prospectors 
and gold seekers took place. In March, 1888, the Govern- 
ment of the late South African Republic laid out a mining 
township on the east side of the Schoonspruit and disposed 
of some 800 stands, now known as the New Township, the 
older settlement on the west side being called the Old 
Township. From time to time great interest has been 
taken in the gold reefs in the KVe^k?Aoiv fiv^avA, "^"^ 
proper scientific and business-Uke de'gft\ov™^'°''^ '^'^^ ''^ *'''*' 



main been lacking, owing to the superior attractions of the 
Witwatersrand. The annual State revenue from the 
SchooDspruit Goldfields averages about ^100,000. About 
a dozen gold mining companies were established in the 
district before the late war, but only a few of these have 
been restarted since the cessation of hostilities. The chief 
obstacle to mining operations is the difficulty of obtaining 
fuel, the nearest coal mines being 16 miles distant in the 
Orange River Colony, while ox traffic over the Vaal River 
has been suspended owing to the outbreak of " Rhodesia 
red water " or " tick fever " in the Transvaal, It is hoped 


that the completion of the railway as far as the coal mines 
will enable the existing companies, and many others yet to 
be formed, to prosecute profitable operations in the neigh- 
bourhood. In 1897 the yield of gold from the Klerksdorp 
district was close upon 85.000 ozs. Latterly there has been 
renewed activity in prospecting and mining operations 
in the district. Along the Schoonspruit is situated some 
of the moat fertile land in South Africa, yielding large 
cjTops of oat-hay, wheat and other cereals, while the whole 
0/ the district is capable of producing UTimen^e cto^ cS. 


mealies and Kaffir corn, which can be, and are, raised 
without irrigation during the summer months. The 
Klerksdorp district is famous for its suitability as a cattle- 
breeding country. Sheep and goats have been doing very well 
in the district during the last few years. Formerly, small 
stock suffered from a good many ailments, ascribed to the 
wildness of the pasturage. In 1890 Klerksdorp was pro- 
claimed a township by the late Government, tind since that 
time it has been the seat of a Special Landdost and 

iiilm'ltfia.:. *.. 


also of a Mining Commissioner. In 1903 Klerksdorp was 
created a Municipality under a Town Council of twelve 
members. The Municipality has not launched forth into 
any public works of great magnitude yet, but schemes for 
the supply of water for domestic purposes, electric lighting 
and other improvements are in contemplation. A dam has 
been thrown across the Schoonspruit, between the old and 
new township, and a park is to be laid out on the oijen 
ground close by the dam, which wiW conivietB^^Vi «vi^ass.';;«. 
^e appearance and attractiveness oi V\ie M\\\'a.%e- t^ >Ya»a.- 


some block of public buildings comprises the Magistrate's 
Court, Post Office, Telegraph Office, Mining Office, etc. 
Among other prominent buildings may be enumerated the 
various Churches, the Government Schools and a fine 
hospital capable of accommodating loo patients. The 
Convent of the Sacred Heart, a handsome building stand- 
ing on the west side of the Schoonspruit, within its own 
grounds, is a first-rate educational institution. The 
climate is excellent and the general health of the com- 
munity is exceedingly good. The average rainfall is about 
22 inches per annum. Klerksdorp is connected by rail 
with Johannesburg and will shortly be linked up with the 
Cape railway system at Fourteen Streams. Another line 
is in course of construction to the Vierfontein Coal Mines 
in the Orange River Colony. 

Some 1 8 miles west of Klerksdorp is the pretty little 
village of Haartebeestfontein, with a population of about 
500 white people. The neighbourhood boasts many- 
picturesque spots along the Vaal River. J. A. N. 


In 1904 this Municipality had a population of 4,622. 
It is 5,709 feet above sea level and is situated 20 miles by 
rail to the west of Johannesburg. It is named after the 
late President Kruger. It is the chief town of the West 
Rand and the centre of its various activities. The town is 
situated on the northern slopes of the Witwatersrand and 
enjoys westward an uninterrupted view of the Magaliesberg 
Mountains, a lofty range which separates the district of 
Krugersdorp from the lower-lying district of Rustenburg. 

Krugersdorp was laid out as a township in July, 1887,. 
on the farm called Paardekraal. Two of the chief busi- 
ness thoroughfares — Commissioner and Ockerse Streets — 
commemorate Mr. Ockerse, the first Magistrate and Mining 
Commissioner of the town. The district and Luipaard's 
Vlei Townships in the immediate vicinity are favourite re- 
sidential quarters. A line of railway from Johannesburg 
to Klerksdorp, shortly to be extended to Fourteen Streams,. 
shirts the I.uipaard's Vlei Township and enters Krugers- 
^orp from the south. 


Commercial Imtilutions. — Four Banks have local 
branches — Standard, National, Bank of Natal and the 
Bank of Africa. The duty of fostering the mercantile in- ' 
terests devolves on the Chamber of Commerce. Agricul- 
ture is represented by the Farmers' Association, a body 
«mbracing practically the whole of the Transvaal, with its 
headquarters at Krugersdorp. The Executive has obtained 
from the Town Council a grant of a large piece of ground, 

^v' '' '*fnl 

^^L t"'j*^'iiiiig|tj. ill 



which will be devoted to exhibitions and to the furtherance 
of agricultural aims. 

Educational. — Education is liberally provided for by 
the Government. A school building has lately been 
erected at a cost of ;^i2,ooo near the centre of the town, 
and technical classes are held for the benefit of older 
students. There is an Ursuline College for girls. 

Miscellaneous. — Public Library (low rate of subscrip- 
tion). Public Reading-Room (free). Clubs, &c. :— The 
Krugersdorp Club, the West Rand Club, the Amateur 
Dramatic Society, the Orchestral Soc\etY, Ca-V^owsB. 
Society and various Sports CYubs. V o\un\.ftet\-Q^Ss.-«^'^'^^"l 


supported, the Imperial Light Horse, the Transva&l 
Scottish and the Scottish Horse having large muster rolls. 

CAureies.— Church of England, Dutch Reformed 
Church, Roman Catholic Church, Synagogue, and other 
places of worship helonging to various non-episcopal bodies. 

The Town Council 
has laid out and is 
gradually forming a 
Recreation Park to the 
east of the town. 

Paardekraal Monu- 
ment. — This commem- 
orates the defeat by the 
Boers of a large force 
of Zulus under their 
great chief Dingaan 
(Dec. 16,1838). Dur- 
ing the British occu 
pation {1877— 1881) it 
was the scene of a 
national meeting of the 
Boers, who, after an 
animated discussion 
lasting five days, re- 
solved to proclaim 
again theSouthAfrican 
Republic, and to re- 
cover the independence 
of the country (Dec. 13, 1880). In the course of the recent 
war the monument was damaged, but the present Govern- 
ment has effected a complete restoration of the structure. 

The Queen's Battery, about twenty minutes' drive 
from the town in a westward direction, on the main road 
to Rustenburg, is another place of interest. Here Dr. 
Jameson's forces were repulsed on their first encounter 
with the Boers. 

Doornknp, about two hours' drive from Krugersdorp; 
was the scene of the surrender of Dr. Jameson (Jan. 2, i8g6). 

The Environs of Krugersdorp ate ^■^\\c^:^%.^\'] -vv^^ "n^x 
spots of considerable natuiaV cViatm M\i \iea.\yVi , -mmsms. 


which may be mentioned the glen in the Alexandra 
Estate, easily reached by half-an-hour's drive from town ; 
and the gorge running in a westerly direction from Wit- 
poortje Station, a mile or two from Krugersdorp, on the 
line from Johannesburg. 

The Valley of Hekpoort (four hours by cart) is one 
of the most fertile parts of the Transvaal. 

Nooitgedachtf on the high ground beyond, is the site 
of the battle fought between General Clements and the 
Boer leaders, Generals De la Rey and Kemp, and is 
covered with many memorial stones. It commands a wide 
view over the district of Rustenburg and that paradise of 
hunters, the Bush Veld. F. A. C. 


Middelburg, one of the principal towns of the Eastern 
Transvaal, is situated on the Pretoria- Delagoa Bay railway 
line, about loo miles east of Pretoria. It lies in a snug 
valley on the banks of the Klein Oliphants River, at an 
altitude of 4,970 feet above sea level. The climate is 
both bracing and temperate. In summer the heat is 
moderated by an invariable breeze, which ensures cool- 
ness at nights; and in winter, in spite of severe frosts, 
the sun always shines brightly and warmly during the day. 

To the south-west of the town are situated the Military 
Cantonments, which cover an area of over 1,000 acres 
and consist of picturesque and well-built huts and bunga- 
lows, laid out with the usual military regularity. Some 
thousands of trees have been planted all over the Can- 
tonments, and what will eventually be a beautiful avenue 
of about two miles in length has been laid out, traversing 
the entire length of the ground. 

An excellent rifle range has been formed in a 
sheltered valley to the north-west of the town, where field 
firing can be carried on without any danger to the public ; 
and a sports ground is in the course of construction in 
the immediate vicinity of the barracks. 

The town, as yet, is unable to boast of many handsome 
buildings, but building of villas proceeds apace. The 
^utcA I^eformed Church stands out prommenW'j » mVYi \\.^ 


lofty spire, in the centre of the town, and there are also several 
other churches, notably the English Church, which has lately 
undergone extensive alterations^the " Gereformeerde " 
Church, theWesleyan Church and the Presbyterian Church. 
In the way of schools Middelburg can easily hold its 
own with any town in the Transvaal. The Government 
Free School possesses a large and handsome building lately 
erected by the Government in the centre of extensive 
playing grounds. The Dutch School has an equally fine 


building, erected by the late Government, and the Pro- 
vincial School has just been granted six acres of ground, 
on which it is intended lo ereci a buildinj; worthy of the 
town. There is also a large and well managed orphanage 
in connection with the Dutch Church. The hospital at 
present consists of two villas rented by the Government, 
but a site for a permanent hospital has been granted, and 
the erection of the building will aho'c^.V^ b« tawm\«T\c.iA, W 
new club building is to be erected \n'tJt\ii^ft%\.'^«»*- 


It is proposed, in the immediate future, to build 
municipal offices on an erf which has been granted by the 
Government for that purpose. These buildings will in all 
probability contain a spacious town hall, library and suites 
of offices, in addition to the accommodation usually required 
by the municipal authorities. 

As yet there is no system of electric light supply, nor 
an adequate water supply in the town, but these important 
matters are only awaiting the flotation of a municipal loan, 
which will shortly be issued. 







fcjf. '-^ 






• itia. 


The townspeople can boast of many cricket, football, 
tennis and other sporting clubs, as well as a flourishing rac- 
ing club, which holds quarterly meetings on the racecourse 
situated to the south of the town on the top of a hill. 

The district is somewhat unique, comprising, as it does, 
both high veld and bush veld, with varieties of climate and 
natural features. Agriculture is carried on satisfactorily in 
all parts of the district, while stock of all sorts thrive equally 
well in the high as in the low veld. Excellent shooting- 
can be obtained throughout the district, there being still 
' s of the vast herds of springbuck and blesbuck 


that, in former times, used to roam in hundreds over the 
plains, while birds and the smaller species of buck are to be 
met with in considerable numbers. 

The district is rich in minerals, but is only lately being 
prospected to any great extent. That coal of fair quality 
exists all over the high veld is well known, the mines at 
Witbank and Brug Spruit, eighteen miles west of Middel- 
bui^ town, producing thousands of tons daily. The country 
north of the town and railway line contains vast quantities 
of excellent iron ore, which as yet have not been worked. 


A cobalt mine, whichwas worked with success some 
years ago is still in existence and will probably be worked 
again before long. Tin has been discovered in many places. 

The district is rich in native labour, there being several 
large Kaffir tribes in the northern portion which provide 
hundreds of boys annually for the different mines in the 
neighbourhood. The mission station at " Boscobello," a 
most picturesque spot on the Oliphants River, about six 
miles to the north-west of the town, is under the auspices of 
the Berlin Mission Society. H.W. 



Pietersburg is the capital of the Zoutpansberg, the 
largest district in the Transvaal. The Zoutpansberg is 
bounded on the north by the Limpopo, on the east by the 
Portuguese territory, and on the south and west by the 
Lydenburg and Waterberg, and covets, roughly, 3fa,ooo- 
square mdes. The middle and high velds are good 
agricultural and grazing country ; the northern portion 


wooded and mountainous and in parts tropica!. The 
district is rich in minerals, saltpans and valuable timber; 
among the established metals being gold, silver, iron, 
copper, cinnebar, and galena. The proclaimed goldfields 
are the Marabastad, Hou those h berg, Selati and Klein 
Letaba Goldfields. 

The town of Pietersburg is laid out on a large scale, 
and the buildings away from the Market Square are far 
apart. At the close of the war, building went on briskly 
until overtaken by the widespread depression, which 



brought it practically to a standEtil!. Prospective build- 
ings are a new Town Hall, for which the Government 
has given a site near the present Government Offices, Mare 
Street, by Market Square ; & gaol on Government land at 

the north end of the town and a German Church. Piet- 
ersburg is one of the healthiest towns of the Transvaal, 
although there appears to be a general impression in other 


parts of South Africa that it is not so, this being, no doubt, 
owing to its receiving fever- stricken visitors from the low 
country. General progress has been made during the past 
two years in farming, mealies, Kaffir corn and tobacco 
being the chief products. Coffee, sugar and rice are also 
produced in some parts, and fruit of almost every kind is 
plentiful. The population of Pietersburg in 1904 was 
(white and coloured) about 3,200, the numbers of each 
race being about equal. T. C. P. 



The population of Potchefstroom in April, 1904, was 
6,021 whites, and 3,065 coloured persons. 

Of all the towns in the Transvaal there is none, 
perhaps, which possesses so much historic interest as 
Potchefstroom — the ancient capital of the old Republic. In 
the days immediately following the establishment of the 
township by the voortrekkers — those old stalwarts of the 
early period of our history — the winning of the beautiful 
Mooi River Valley from barbarism was attended with great 
danger and was a time fitted with incidents of courage and 
endurance in fights with both man and beast. The original 
Old Dutch Church on the Market Square, erected in the 
early fifties, served a double purpose, for devotional pur- 
poses and also as a position of defence in time of war. The 
rudely constructed building was surrounded by a kind of 
loop-holed bastion from behind which the Boers protected 
themselves, their wives and families. It was here that the 
first Transvaal Volksraad sat ; but it should be mentioned 
that a native rising brought the initial deliberations to an 
abrupt conclusion, all the legislators having to shoulder the 
gun and go forth to beat back a determined attack on the 
part of the natives. In those days the spirit of warfare was 
a characteristic of the nation then in the making, because 
to conquer was to live. 

It was as far back as 1836 that two parties of voor- 
trekkers, under Pretorius and Potgieter respectively, settled 
in the Transvaal, the first-named on the Aapies River by 
the Magaliesberg ,and the latter at Witkopjesfontein on the 
Mooi River. Pretorius' township became Pretoria, while 
Potgieter subsequently moved his camp lower down the 
river and founded Potchefstroom. For years there was a 
keen rivalry between the adherents of these pioneer families, 
and it was not until 1857 that a government was formed 
and Potchefstroom created the capital of the Transvaal. 
The boundaries of this town, together with those of Rusten- 
burg and Pretoria were, in that year, defined. 

Potchefstroom was, however, a town in 1839, because 
old records show that it was then that provision was made 


for the allocation of town commonage, no less than eleven 
farms being set aside for the purpose, this giving a tract of 
land of over 60,000 acres in extent. . Even now, when many 
thousands of acres of the commonage have been reserved 
by the State, there are from 40,000 to 50,000 acres remain- 
ing for the use of present-day erf-holders in the town. 

In 1862 the battle of Potchefstroom took place. S. P* 
J. Kruger — destined afterwards to play such a great part in 
the life of the State — then Commandant-General for 
Pretorius, bombarded the little village from Vecht Kopje^ 
where the Military Cantonments now stand. Schoeman*s 
force made an unsuccessful sally, but Kruger's artillery was 
more formidable than dangerous, for only 11 casualties 
occurred. In the year following, Potchefstroom had been 
taken possession of by Viljoen, and this time Kruger, who 
headed the army of the State, had to retreat. 

Thers was no coin currency, trading being done by 
means of notes and barter. President Pretorius was in 
receipt of the munificent salary of ;^30o a year, and his 
wife was not above keeping a boarding-house and adding 
to the family exchequer by selling pickled cabbage or 

Gradually the village grew into a town, the bounties of 
the wonderful Mooi River and the fertility of the land added 
to build up an era of prosperity, and late in the seventies 
Potchefstroom was made a Municipality. But the inhabi- 
tants refused to pay either rates or taxes, and a few years 
later the Government had, perforce, to take over the 
administration of the town — a state of things which con- 
tinued up to the time of the late war. 

Potchefstroom played an important part in the war of 
1 880- 1, and it was here that a gallant and prolonged stand 
was made against the Boers under Cronje. As witnesses 
of this siege the old fort, with the graves of many British 
soldiers, stillr emains. 

The vicissitudes of Potchefstroom have been legion, 
particularly prior to the time when the seat of Government 
was moved to Pretoria. In 1889 came a short-lived boom^ 
and the town remained in a more or less somnolent state as 
regards material progress until the three years* war. 


Since the war Potchefstroom has developed to an 
almost incredible extent. 

Its commercial advance has been phenomenal, and in 
place of a more or less straggling street, the main business 
thoroughfare — King Edward Street— is probably as fine 
as in any South African country town. With a population 
of over 9,000 whites and twenty-five miles of made roads, 
Potchefstroom comes near being the largest town in the 
Colony, outside of Johannesburg and Pretoria. The 
location of a garrison, the selection of the town as the 
headquarters of the Western Division, South Africam 
Constabulary, the establishment of Government and 
Burgher Land Settlements and an Experimental Farm in 
close proximity, together with its being an educational 
centre, are all links in the chain of Potchefstroom's progress. 

Potchefstroom is in the centre of a magnificent 
agricultural and pastoral district, and is within easy reach 
of Johannesburg. Its climate is at all times delightful. The 
old capital is essentially a beautiful town, as the increas- 
ing number of visitors testifies. It possesses wealth un- 
told, both in water and trees — treasures of great price in 
South Africa. Along the furrows in each street are 
streams of crystal water, and on every hand tower graceful 
willows of great size and abundant foliage. There are 
quaint, old-fashioned houses innumerable, while in the 
gardens and orchards flowers and fruit abound. The 
system of irrigation is such that every erf has its regular 
supply of water, and thus the eye is always charmed with 
the freshness of the landscape. Near the Railway Station 
is the Park, a delightfully shaded spot with well-kept walks 
and drives and trim gardens. Here are the tennis and 
croquet courts and grounds for hockey, football, cycling, 
and cricket. Fringing the town on the east are the 
^* Meadows," comprising some 500 acres of reclaimed land, 
destined to become a magnificent riverside pleasure ground. 
Tree-planting has been commenced, and the Golf Links 
made by the local club are, it is said on expert authority, 
among the best grass links in South Africa. 

Situate close to the town are the hatcheries of the 
Transvaal Trout Acclimatization Society, where thousandcL 


of trout are being bred, to be distributed in the rivers and 
streams of the Colony. The Mooi gives promise of becom- 
ing a favourite haunt of the hardy fish. There is much 
shooting to be obtained in the district, and there is also a 
racing club and other organisations for the sportsman. 

Watered by a canal — some twelve miles in length — are 
the Burgher Land Settlements, a scheme which has trans- 
formed a vast tract of country into a scene of activity an J 
successful cultivation, while to the south of these and fed by 
another great furrow, which cost over ;^i4,ooo to construct, 
are situated the many thirty-acre holdings of the British 
settlers. Here again barrenness has, by means of the 
further tapping of the bounteous Mooi River, given way 
to fertility and luxurious crops. 

So important a feature of the agricultural side of fertile 
Potchefstroom is the Government Experimental Farm that 
a brief description will be of interest, especially as it is the 
most successful of any in the Colony. There are four 
divisions, />., crops and cattle, poultry and horticulture. In 
the first-named, no less than 750 acres have been placed 
under cultivation, and experiments are being carried on with 
produce, forage and vegetables of all kinds. The herds of 
cattle are composed of only pedigree animals purchased 
from the best known breeders in the United Kingdom, and 
the progeny of these will be distributed throughout the 
Colony. Similar methods are being adopted in the poultry 
department. The horticultural department covers some 30 
acres, and is laid out, in different methods of planting, with 
some 2,570 varieties of fruit trees, and 450 kinds of vines. 
The system adopted in the orchard is one of n on -irrigation 
and some marvellous results have already been obtained. 

The military cantonments are magnificently laid out on 
a hill overlooking the town, and in a few years, when the 
tree-planting scheme comes to fruition, will be a veritable 
forest town. The S.A.C. cantonments, too, comprise a 
camp with substantial buildings on another fine site. 

It is the intention of the Government to make 
Potchefstroom an educational centre for the Western 
Transvaal. The College has recently been erected at a cost 
oi nearly ^10,000, and the site being no less than 40 acres 




in extent is said to make the finest school ground in South 
Africa. Potchefstroom has a branch of the Technical 
Institute, a Girls' High School, a Dutch Theological 
Seminary, a big Orphanage School and numerous Govern- 
ment institutions. 

This development is due to the many advantages with 
which Nature has endowed the town and district. The 
fertility of the soil is proverbial. Water abounds, and whilst 
the seeker after rest or health finds here variety of scenery 
and tranquil surroundings, with a touch of the historic,. 
Potchefstroom itself is so advanced, with its lovely resi- 
dences, pretentious business establishments, and splendidly 
equipped hotels, that it must stand in the forefront of pro- 
gressive up-country towns. Electric light is one of the 
modernising influences, and the Municipality have in con- 
templation road-making and other schemes which will still 
further enhance its reputation. The town's valuation is 
nearly a million sterling. W. S. V. H. 


The population at the last census was 2,500 white 
residents, 1,108 soldiers, and 1,600 coloured people. In 
the whole district there are 23,000 whites. Standerton 
is an old Dutch town situated on the main line of railway 
from Natal, at an elevation of 5,022 feet above sea level, on 
the banks of the Vaal River and 125 miles from Johannes- 
burg. It derives its name from that of the old owner of 
the farm on which it stands, a farmer named Andrian 
Standers, who was at one time a commandant of the Orange 
Free State. 

It is the most important town of the Eastern Trans- 
vaal, and is the centre of a large agricultural and cattle 
rearing area. A large amount of wool is also produced in 
this district. Two of the most important drifts across 
rivers, viz. : — De Lange and Robert's, are on the main 
roads from the Orange River Colony into the Transvaal 
via Standerton. 

Standerton was the scene of considerable militatY 
operations • during the late war, and Vvas wo^ \»x%^ ^^^c^- 




tonments with a garrison of some 2,000 men. Since the 
war the town has made rapid progress, and promises to 
become ultimately a large and important centre. The 
district is mainly agricultural and wool producing. 

Coal has been found and worked in the district, and 
prospecting for minerals, etc., is being carried on. The 
formation is very stony ; diabase, diorite and sandstone 
being found everywhere, with a substratum of lava, la 
most parts the surface soil is rich and loamy, simply need- 
ing irrigation to make excellent pasturage. Water is easily 
obtained by sinking wells and boring. 

The average rainfall is 24 inches, nearly the whole of 
which falls during the summer months from November to 
March, Some of the rainfalls are very heavy. During the 
last rainy season 2 inches fell in sixty minutes on one day, 
and 2 inches in sixty-five minutes on the day following. The 
average barometer pressure is 25-250 inches. Theminimum 
temperature registered during the last two years was 14 
degrees, the maximum temperature 91 in the shade. There 
is a Government Meteorological Station in the town and 
several rainfall stations in the district. 


Great difficulty is experienced in growing trees, owing 
to the long dry season, and also, probably, to the great 
variations of temperature within a few hours. 

Owing to the sharp bends on the Vaal River, a most 
unique sight to be seen close to the town is that of two 
large bridges, at right angles to each other, only a few 
hundred yards apart, over the same river. 

The Municipal Council of twelve was established in 
December, 1903, in succession to the Health Board formed 
during the war for the control of sanitation in the town. 

Since the war many new buildings have been erected, 
including two banks, Anglican and Wesleyan places of 
worship, a Masonic Hall and a Government school to 
accommodate 350 children. There is also a Dutch school. 
The Dutch Reformed Church is an imposing building. 

A new water supply for the town is under construction 
at a cost of some ;^30,ooo, and it is hoped that the town 
will shortly be lit with electric light. A weir has been built 
across the Vaal River for the dual purpose of gauging the 
flow of the river and for conserving water for the supply of 
the town during the dry season. 

It is of great encouragement to the town that the 
Government have decided to hold the Circuit Court there 
for the whole of the Eastern Transvaal, as well as making 
it the headquarters of the Educational Department and of 
the Volunteers for this part of the Colony. 

The Government have also endeavoured to improve 
the breed of horses in the Transvaal by establishing a stud 
farm close to the town, where the finest types of horses ever 
imported into South Africa may be seen. 

There are several Burgher Land Settlements in the 
district, where every endeavour is made to help the poorer 
Boer families to earn a livelihood. 

Standerton, in common with most other country towns 
in the Transvaal, can lay claim to no special characteristics 
of its own. The veld stretches for scores of miles around^ 
typically South African in its sametiesS) oxCs^j x^\^N^^\v^2«i 



and there by spruits, kopjes, and small farmhouses — not 
the farms that one sees at home with every acre under culti- 
vation, but mile after mile of bare dry veld, with here and 
there a patch of mealies growing, and a few cattle grazing. 
Brown and uninteresting to the visitor as this country 
may seem, it has yet a strange charm that grows upon one 
after a few years ; when you have hunted under its blue 
sunny skies ; when you have come to look upon Standers 
flat-topped kopje as a familiar friend, and have enjoyed in 


quiet, unpretentious farmhouses the honest, rough hospitality 
of Oom Jan or Oom Piet, then it is that one grows to love 
the veld with its wild freedom, and to count its people as 
one's friends. F. W. B. and W. H. D. 

[The Editors have had to curtail greatly Che information received 
from district contributors by the elimination of all references to present 
day offidals by luune, and also to omit a kige number of illustrations, in 
order to reduce this Handbook tt . . . , 




Census population (1904), 16S whites; 53 coloured. 

This township is situated in the centre of th« Wakker- 
stroom district. It was originally but a " kerkplaats " 
(church place), and founded as such some thirty years ago 
by the Rev. Lion Cachet. 

The late Government proclaimed it a township shortly 
before the war, and a thriving wool trade was carried on. 


During the war the neat little place (nearly all build- 
ings having been made of stone) was destroyed, but upon 
the oessation of hostilities the old inhabitants returned, and 
things are gradually following the natural course again. 
The Irrigation Department is at present engaged in supply- 
ing the township with water, as Amersfoort, like all other 
- highveld places, cannot boast of a too great supply of water. 

There are, besides the Government Offices, five stores, 
two agents' offices, a doctor,a pbob^rapher, two blaok&«: 
shops, several carpenters and coiAxaj:Acii& «3x&.%.%'u»si^^^^^- 


As in most Transvaal towns a. church belonging to the 
Dutch Reformed community stands in the middle of the 
square. The Town Council consists of five members. 

The climate is healthy and the prospects of Amers- 
foort as the centre of one of the largest wool districts 
cannot be considered as other than good. M. F. S. 

Belfast and District. 
Bel^t {population, 506 whites and 228 natives) is one 
of the miiior municipalities of the Transvaal, situated about 


thirty miles east of Middelburg, on the Pretoria -Delagoa 
railway. It was founded in 1890 on the farm Tweefontein, 
the property of Mr. R. C. O'Neil, and consists of 888 erven 
laid out in blocks of twelve. Erven are the same size as 
at Pretoria, 240 x 120 Cape feet ; and the town streets, 100 
feet wide, run East and West, and North and South, 

There is a large Market Square. Four plots, each the 
size of one block of erven, are reserved for Church purposes. 
The town lands and town tl^ethet compilse ^^1%° morgen. 


As a municipality Belfast enjoys the unique position 
in this country of having neither assessment rate nor debt. 

A portion of the Town Lands, 750 morgen in extent, 
has been granted to the Agricultural Department for the 
purpose of making a plantation. This ground is granted 
on a perpetual lease at a nominal rental. 

There are also Government Reserves for South 
African Constabulary Quarters, Education purposes, etc. 

Watetfalh, — Within a few miles of Belfast — on 
Sterkspruit Height — there is a pretty waterfall of more than 
3o feet. A much grander fall of nearly 800 feet is situated 
on the Crocodile River, some twenty miles away. 

Bergendal, about three miles from Belfast Station, was 
the position where the Boers made their last organised stand 
against the British troops, and a monument marks the 
kopje where the Johannesburg police fought until nearly 

A monument on the east of the town was erected in 
1890 to commemorate the victory of the Boers over 
Dingaan, and a feast is held annually on Dingaan's Day to 
keep the memory of this great event green in the minds of 
the descendants of the brave voortrekkers. 

The chief feature of this small town is the climate, 
and it is already widely known as a resort for those who 
in summer suffer from the heat of more low-lying districts. 

Being 6,700 feet above sea level, it is admirably 
adapted for the cure of pulmonary diseases, and a small 
sanatorium has already been commenced. 

From an agricultural point of view the neighbourhood 
is a splendid summer pasture for sheep. Cattle thrive well, 
and horse-sickness is practically unknown. The best crops 
are oats, barley and potatoes. Hardy fruits flourish, and 
good tobacco is grown in the Steelpoort valley. 

Copper has been lately discovered about eight miles 
from the town, but up to the present has not been 
sufficiently developed to determine the value of the find. 

Iron is plentiful in the Steelpoort valley, about twelve 
miles distant, but has not yet been worked. Thet^ \%^^^ 
in the district, but not in payable q]aaiiV\\Aes». 

■ 36 


Coal abounds, and is worked on the farm adjoining 
the town lands on a large scale ; while at Zwartkopjes, 
good house coal is found so close to the surface that 
"quarry" rather than "mine," ia the propier descriptive 
term. Eight miles from Belfast, on Reitvlei farm, is a lime- 
stone quarry, 20 feet in thickness. G. M. 



Census population (1904): 220 whites; 186 coloured. 

The township of Bethal was founded some twenty-five 
years ago on the farm Blesbokspruit, the site being con- 
veniently situated between Standerton, Middelburg and 
Ermelo. The surrounding area was proclaimed a separate 
district by the Government of the S.A. Republic in 1897, 
and returned its members to the First and Second Chambers. 
During this period the town became a prosperous centre 
of the wool trade, but showed no signs of rapid development. 

The town, like many others in the Eastern Transvaal, 
was entirely demolished during the wai; only four bouses io 
eAe district escaping destruction. 


On the declaration of peace Bethal was made a sub- 
district of Standerton ; the town was rapidly re- built and 
issnow far larger than it was before the war. 

The Springs Eastward Railway has now reached 
Bethal. The township was created a municipality in 1904. 

Among the buildings recently completed are the Town 
Hall and an imposing Dutch Reformed Church. 

The district has always been noted as a great stock 
district, and it is singularly free from cattle diseases. The 
future possibilities are immense. Since 1902 new stock 
has been imported to the extent of 100,000 sheep and con- 
siderable numbers of cattle and horses. 

Mealies, oats and manna are grown extensively in steadily 
increasing quantities, and the area of arable land under 
cultivation is twice as large as ever in its previous history, 
owing to the introduction of steam ploughs and other up- 
to-date agricultural machinery. 

Coal of an excellent quality is found over almost the 
whole district, and is being developed, the lack of railway 
communication having hitherto prevented enterprise in this 

There are indications of gold and various other 
minerals. The climate is extremely healthy and bracing. 

T. M. P. 


Census population (1904) : 356 whites ; 277 coloured. 

A small picturesque town, situated in the Eastern 
Transvaal at an altitude of 5,600 feet above sea level. 
The site was declared a township in 1886, and was named 
after the wife of the donor of the land. Carolina district is 
sparsely populated, while the town itself comprises less 
than 300 inhabitants. 

During the war Carolina shared the fate of most 
country towns away from the railway line. After being 
occupied four times by British forces, it was garrisoned 
permanently in March, 1901, when the last of the inhabi- 
tants were removed to Concentialioxi Caxcv^^. 


The chief places of interest in the neighbourhood are 
Kalkoenknontz and Warmbaths. At the former are several 
waterfalls, one with a fall of 80 feet. Warmbaths com- 
prises a natural basin of water, 12 feet by 50 feet, of con- 
siderable temperature. Near at hand, however, is a cold 
spring, which is used to regulate the temperature of the 
hot bath. The construction of a sanatorium on the site 
has been discussed. In spite of the distance (5 hours) from 
Carolina, Warmbaths is frequented by the townspeople 
during the winter months. Geologically, the neighbour- 
hood of Warmbaths is most interesting. 

Agriculture forms the principal industry of the district. 
A considerable amount of transport-riding is also done, as 
the town is on the main road from the Delagoa Bay rail- 
way (Wonderfontein Station) to Swazieland. Coal min- 
ing is conducted on a small scale. Asbestos is receiving 
much attention, and farms in the neighbourhood have 
been recently purchased with the object of exploiting this 
mineral. Iron and mica have also been found, but have 
not been worked. 

With the completion of the Machadodorp-Ermelo 
railway, Carolina will be connected with Pretoria and 
Delagoa Bay, on the one hand, and on the other with 
Johannesburg by the Springs- Eastward line. 

H. G. R. 


Christiana, situated in the S. W. of the Colony, is a 
town of growing importance. It stands upon the bank of 
the River Vaal, which is an inestimable boon to the town's 
inhabitants. In the year 1870 the town was surveyed, and 
so received official recognition as the township of Christiana. 
Very modest indeed were its pretensions in those days, for 
in 1872 there were only some half-dozen houses standings 
and the population could not have exceeded 50. 

The buildings of the town suffered very little during 
the late war, for the place was in the continuous occupation 
<?/ /he British from May i6th, 1900, to the termination of 


Gradually a farming and transport community estab- 
lished itself here; and after much thought, talk and 
petitioning, the townspeople secured the ear of their 
Government, and its aid soon followed ; for in the years 
1 885-1 886 a dam was constructed across a portion of the 
river, some four miles to the east of the town. From the 
dam an irrigation canal was dug, which enclosed a very 
substantial part of the town between it and the river, and 
thus a strong inducement was offered to settlers to come to 
the town. 

Farming and diamond digging now represent the 
industries of the town and district. Within the area of the 
town the water erven are cultivated with great assiduity, 
but the farmers of the district depend upon cattle- rearing. 
The area of cultivated lands on the farms is insignificant, 
and this fact is ascribed largely to the irregularity and 
trifling character of the rainfall. 

Numbers of men are engaged in diamond-digging 
along the banks of the Vaal and in the neighbourhood of 
the town. The industry is wholly of the alluvial kind, and 
the diamonds are won chiefly by the aid of machines con- 
structed on the gravitation principle. The diamonds found 
are not large, but they are considered to be of good average 
quality, and their value works out to about 80/- per carat. 
The value of the monthly yield during the past year was, 
approximately, ;^i,6oo. 

During the first half of 1904 as many as 400 diggers 
were at work on the town diggings, but the number has 
now sunk to 100. The reason for the decline in the activity 
of the industry is set down mainly to the difficulty of 
securing and maintaining a proper supply of Kaffir labour. 

The site of the town is about 3,500 feet above the sea 
level. The landscape of this district is, however, extremely 
flat and uninteresting. The veld stretches for miles in all 
directions in one vast plain, with here and there a low 
kopje or rounded swell at very long intervals. 

The white population of the town totals 1,735, and the 
coloured contingent numbers 347. G. P. 

The illustrations for Carolina and Christiana were rvot \si Vvaxv^ \^ 
time for publication in this edition. 



Ermelo (population : 767 whites, 684 natives) is the 
chief town of the district bearing this name, and the centre 
of its administration. It is nearly equi-distant (about 60 
miles) from Standerton, Middelburg and Volksrust; and 
about 40 miles from the Swazi border. It was laid out by 
the Ermelo congregation of the Dutch Reformed Church 
and proclaimed a township in 1880. At that time game 
was found abundantly in the vicinity. The town, with the 
town lands, comprises a portion of the farm Nooitgedacht^ 
No. 10, purchased by the D.R. Church, and occupies over 
3,012 morgen. It was transferred in 1896, under reserva- 
tion of certain erven and the Church Square, to the late 

The town, which became the centre of a large trade in 
wool, progressed steadily up to the time of the war in 
1899. Postal communication was established with Wak- 
kerstroom by Kaffir runners in 1881, and a telegraph office 
was opened in 1888. At the outbreak of hostilities the 
population was about 600 whites and 300 natives, and there 
were about 1,000,000 sheep in the district. The quantity 
of wool then sold in Ermelo was about 10,000 bales, averag- 
ing about 400 lbs. each and realising ;^i 00,000. The town 
has experienced the same depression in trade that has been 
felt throughout the country ; but, as the centre of a rich 
agricultural district, with a splendid supply of coal, it can 
look with confidence to the future, and rely on sharing in 
the increased wealth consequent on the development of its 
resources and the return of prosperity to the farmers. 
The town was completely demolished during the war, only 
one house being left intact. Nearly all the old inhabitants 
returned after peace, and have shown commendable energy 
in rebuilding their homes and places of business. It is now 
almost completely restored, and consists of substantial, well- 
built houses, very few wood and iron structures being seen* 
A feature of the town is the large number of well grown and 
healthy trees with which it is interspersed, presenting an 
agreeable contrast to the bareness of the surrounding veld. 



The Government Buildings consist of si Court House 
and Offices, Post Office, and a Gaol large enough to accom- 
modate 100 prisoners. The South African Constabulary 
and Public Works Department have their headquarters for 
the district in the town. An official residence for the 
Mf^istrate with some pretensions to architectural distinc- 
tion, and Government Primary and Secondary Schools 
have been built since the war. There is also a private 
Dutch- school. 

Churches. — Dutch Reformed and Wesleyan Methodist. 
Funds are being raiseit to build an Anglican Church. 


The British community is about equally divided be- 
tween Wesleyan Methodists, Anglicans, and Presbyterians. 

The Government Experimental Farm and Tree Nursery 
adjoins the town lands, 970 acres of which have been granted 
to the Government to serve as an cutlet for the work of the 
Nursery. The planting of this area will add considerably 
to the attractiveness of the town. 

Municipal government was granted in September, 
1904. The yearly revenue of the Council from all sources 
is about £'2,y>o. 


The value of property within the municipal area is 

about ^200,000. Government property is valued at £2^, 1 75. 
Agricuiturt. — Ermelo is specially adapted for the growth 
of mealies. Between 25,000 and 30,000 acres are reckoned 
to be under mealies and about half as much under KafBr 
com, wheat, potatoes, oats, tmd barley. The acreage under 
cultivation is about twice as much as before the war. Steam 
machinery is being introduced, and with the advent of the 
railway the area under cultivation should he increased. 


The district is also suitable for stock farming. Horses, 
cattle and sheep thrive well, as it is comparatively free from 
cattle disease, while horse sickness is almost unknown on 
the high veld. Though denuded of stock during the war, 
it is computed that there are now about 200,000 sheep and 
15,000 cattle in the district. Dairy farming has never 
been practised on a commercial scale. Railway com- 
munication is very badly needed for the development of 
agricultural resources. 

Minerals. — Coal is abundant throughout the district. 
300 tons ate annually exported to Standerton and Volksrust 
by waggon. The mines are, however, all undeveloped. 



Schools. — There are Government Schools at Carolina. 
Lake Chrissie, Amsterdam, and Waterval Boven. There 
are in addition 1 1 Farm Schools. Besides these there are 
1 1 Private Dutch Schools, including the one in Ermelo. 

Communications. — The chief roads in the district are 
fairly good. Several bridges have been erected since the war, 
and at various spruits and through swampy ground the 
roads have been mended. 

Two railway lines are in course of construction — the 
Machadodorp-£rme1o line and the Springs- Eastwards line. 
The latter will pass Ermelo about twenty miles to the 
north, intersecting the Mach ad odorp- Ermelo line, and will 
ultimately be extended through Swaziland to Delagoa Bay. 
W. H. W. 


Lichten burg- 
Population of town, 1 200 whites, 150 natives. Popu- 
lation of district, 6,300 whites, 9, 800 natives. The town, 
situated about 36 miles from Mafeking and 70 from 
Potchefetroom, was founded in 187^. W '\% \al\i. »sas. "va. 


lai^e erven, and abundantly supplied with watei from a 
fountain in the town commoDage. 

When the town was first established there was some 
doubt whether the town and a large portion of the district 
belonged to the natives or to the Transvaal. On this 
account very few of the farms were inhabited. In 1881, 
however, the Pretoria Convention determined the border, 
and the town was considered part of the Marico district. 

In 1884 the London Convention changed the border 

ft ' 'A ^ jl 


line, adding 45 farms to the district. Stock of every 
description thrives well. In 1886 Lichtenburg was pro- 
claimed a separate district. 

Owing to drought and other misfortunes, the farmers 
are, with few exceptions, in poor circumstances. Mealies, 
Kaffir corn, potatoes and tobacco are extensively grown ; 
but the want of railway communication is a serious drawback. 

The township has gone ahead since the war. The 
Toffn Council bas done its best to improve the streets and 


water furrows, but as funds are scarce, a great deal cannot 
be done in this direction. There are three Dutch churches, 
eight stores and two banks. 

The Agricultural Department has a farm adjoining the 
town where afforestation is being carried on. The trees are 
growing well, and will be an acquisition to the town. 

Another drawback to the development of the district is 
the number of farms owned by land companies which are 
not cultivated. Since the war, however, the Proprietary 
Company has established a number of white settlers on 
the farms. 

The mail coach from Potchefstroom to Mafeking 
passes through Lichtenburg three times weekly. 

District of Lydenburg. 

The principal town of the Lydenburg District is 
situated in the North-Eastern Transvaal, fifty miles north 
of the Delagoa Bay railway line. It is reached by coach 
from Machadodorp, the nearest station on the above line. 
The population of the town in April, 1904, was 778 white 
and 745 coloured persons. 

In 1845 the voortrekkers, who came through Sekukuni- 
land by the Magnet Heig^hts road, followed the Steelpoort 
River until they reached a valley, where they established a 
township called Ohrigstad, after one Ohrig, a citizen of 
Amsterdam, Holland, who endeavoured to open up trade 
with them from Delagoa Bay. This town was occupied 
until 1852, when it was abandoned on account of the 
ravages made by fever, the inhabitants finally settling in 
Lydenburg (Town of Sorrow). 

There are very few places in the district of much 
historical interest, the most important being Sekukuni's 
stronghold, which lies north-west of Lydenburg. It was 
here that the old Kaffir chief, Sekukuni, was finally cap- 
tured, after a resistance of three years, by Sir Garnet, now 
Lord, Wolseley, who came up from Zululand at the close 
of the Zulu war. 

There are numerous ruins of Kaf^i %\xoi^^cW% o^*^^ 



farm Blaauwboschkraal on the Machadodorp-Lydenburg 
road, which are supposed to have been built by the Zulus 
during one of their raids under Tchaka, 

At the town of Lydenburg is the site of a fort (Fort 
Mary), which was held by the British during the War of 
1881, and it was this force that, during its march to Pretoria, 
was annihilated by the Boers at Bronkhorstspruit. 

Notable places of scenery are very scarce. There is, 
however, a fine waterfall at Waterval Boven, on the 

Delagoa Bay line, and also same stalactite caves near 
Pilgrim's Rest. 

The principal industry is farming, but owing to the 
great ravages caused by horse -sickness, various cattle 
diseases, locusts, etc., it is not in the flourishing condition 
one would expect from the great possibilities which abound 
on every side. 

The future of the district from mineral possibilities is 
great. There are various gold- producing mines in the 
district, the principal one being at Pilgrim's Rest, but until 


communication by means of railways is established with 
the outside world, the exploitation of the district is greatly 
handicapped. At Magnet Heights in the north-west of the 
district is an enormous iron deposit, part of which is 
magnetic, and millions of tons of ore are in sight. 

This deposit, worked on the scale it warrants, would, 
without doubt, not only furnish all the iron necessary for 
manufacture of the mining and agricultural machinery used 
in South Africa, but would offer a supply to other countries 
as well. 


5,280 feet above sea level. The town is situated 155 
miles by rail from Pretoria. Population (1904), 237 white, 
264 coloured. 

In 1878 a railway line which it was then proposed to 
build from Delagoa Bay to Pretoria was surveyed as far as 
the site now occupied by this township by Colonel Machado, 
afterwards Governor of Louren9o Marques. The railway 
scheme, however, was not carried through until fifteen 
years later, when the farm Geluk again became a large rail- 
way camp and depot for railway material. A new village 
sprang into existence, and on the suggestion of President 
Kruger, was called Machadodorp after Colonel Machado. 

Machadodorp is the meeting point of several highways. 
The transport roads to Carolina and Ermelo, to Swazieland 
and to Lydenburg start from here, while the railway line 
connecting it with Ermelo will shortly be opened. 

During the late war Machadodorp became an import- 
ant centre. After the occupation of Pretoria it was for a 
short time the " seat of government.'* President Kruger 
and various heads of departments lived here and transacted 
affairs of State in railway carriages, his officers, officials 
and burghers thronging the small village. On August 28, 
1900, General Buller made his entry, and Machadodorp 
from that time was used as a supply dep6t for the Eastern 
and North-Eastern Transvaal. The fight at Helvetia 
could be watched from Machadodorp, and a few days later, 
on January 10, 1901, a determined attack was made b^ tha 



Boers on the village itself. After the war, a Repatriation 
Depdt was established here, and gave great impetus to the 
growth of the village. 

Machadodorp was not proclaimed as a township until 
December 30, 1904, when the Urban District Board, 
established in the previous February, gave place to 
municipal government. 

Many mineral possibilities are claimed for the neighbour- 
hood, but hitherto coal only has been exploited. A marble 
quarry is being opened up within a short distance of the 

There is a warm sulphurous spring in the immediate 
ticinity, over which a bath-house has been built. 

W. J. 



Population (1904 census) — 361 whites; 238 coloured. 

When the early Voortrekkers came to the water course 
which runs through the Wateiberg district, they imagined 
that they had discovered a portion of the River of Egypt, bo 
they caiied their settlement " Nile-stream." 

lNsvaal handbook. 


Tbe sandy soil of the neighbourhood gave colour to 
this notion, fos the town itself was laid out on a sandhill. 
The founders were very disappointed when their river 
proved to be nothing more than a tributary of the Limpopo. 
The town of Nyistroom is the capital of the Waterberg 
district, which has been called the district of promises and 
its inhabitants " Micawbers," but so far the hoped-for 
mineral wealth has not turned up, despite a multitude of 
shareholders who were induced to put up their money for 


the purchase of large tracts of territory. Tv/o men, named 
Cohen and Widder, once brought in a bottle full of 
nuggets and gold dust, which they had raked in from some- 
where, but they died of fever before they had time to tell 
anyone of the actual spot. At present, the district is 
mainly pastoral, especially in the Crocodile River valley, 
but rinderpest and war stepped in to prevent the multi- 
plication of flocks and herds. The few people in the district 
who are comparatively well off are those who btQu,%til\si 


fresh cattle a few years ago and have stuck to their 

Agricultural work is now in progress, but natural 
surface water is scarce. There is, however, more than 
sufRcient rainfall to serve the purpose, if properly conserved, 
and steps are bein^ taken to that end. With a good system 
of irrigation and with artificial manures, the farmers expect 
to show profitable returns. The new settlers imported from 
Europe are gradually becoming accustomed to the climate, 

the soil and the natives. Fruit trees, both tropical i 
sub-tropical, fiouriih wherever planted, and orange groves 
are springing up in many places. Vitkulture has been 
neglected, hitherto, but vines grow well and yield good crops. 
The first store established in Nylstroom was put up in 
1882. It overlooks what is now the Market Square, and is 
a flourishing concern with many branches. It now enjoys 
the benefit of healthy competition. C. A. L. 


Piet Relief and District. 

Practically the whole of the land comprising what is 
now known as the Piet Retief District was granted about 
thirty years ago to a Mr. M*Corkindale by the late Boer 
Government of the Transvaal. M*Corkindale promised 
the Government to settle this country with Scottish settlers,, 
mostly drawn from the Industrial Schools of Scotland. 

The district is a long and narrow one running along 
the Swazi border, and farther south forming a wedge 
between Zululand and Swaziland. The Boer idea in 
granting this concession was to have a sort of buffer state,, 
inhabited by Scottish settlers, between themselves and the 
Swazi and Zulu nations. 

As M*Corkindale could not provide the necessary 
number of settlers, the scheme proved a failure, and most of 
the land had to be sold. Some Boers bought large farms,, 
but most of the best parts were acquired by German 
settlers, who are now amongst the wealthiest farmers in 
this district. 

The smallest Republic that ever existed, certainly in 
regard to the number of inhabitants it contained, is now 
included in this district. Three Boers obtained a grant of 
land, equal to about three farms, from one of the Swazi 
kings. They started a Republic, giving it the name of the 
Klein Vrij Staat (Little Free State). One of the three,. 
named Bezuidenhout, became President, and his son Chief 
of Police. The other white inhabitants were all officials of 
some sort or other. The happenings in this small Republic 
before the Transvaal Government took it over would supply 
splendid material for a novel. 

In regard to the products of the district, Luneburg 
oranges are considered about the best in the Transvaal,, 
and Piet Retief tobacco is fast making a name for itself. 
Mealies, except in years of drought, are always a good 
crop, and wheat grows very well on irrigated lands in 
winter. Game is still fairly plentiful. The Government 
has set aside a large reserve on the Zulu border. 

The Assegai, Inkompies and Usutu Rivers provide 
good sport for the disciples of Isaac Waltou. 


Tfaere are indications of many kinds of minerals, but 
nothiog lias been found yet in payable quantities except coal. 

The natives in the district, who are mostly offcasts 
from the Zulu and Swazi nations, number 30,000. 

The white population of the district ia 2,046. 

The township was laid out in 1885, and has a, total 
population now of 341 white and 687 coloured persons. 

Hot springs exist in several parts of the district. 



3,550 feet above sea level. 138 miles by rail from 
Pretoria. Population (1904): 348 white, 122 coloured. 

Potgietersrust is picturesquely situated on the northern 
railway line, midway between Nylstroom and Pietersburg, 
at the entrance to Makapanspoort. The town is surrounded 
by high hills, and enjoys an exceedingly mild climate. 
I It was founded hy the Voortrekkers in i860 as a base 
for their hunting expeditions northwards, and for a certain 
period considerable agricultural progress was made. 



Troubles, however, itrose with the natives, and after b, series 
of conflicts with the tribes in the neighbourhood the village 
was abandoned. In one of these fights Piet Po^ieter — 
after whom the town is now named — met his end. 

A rich fertile soil and an abundance of water, in 
conjunction with an exceedingly mild winter climate, 
enable the residents to cultivate oranges, bananas, grapes, 
figs and almost every kind of sub-tropical fruit. Even 
coSee trees may be satisfactorily cultivated in the higher 


parts of the town. Experimental farms have been estab- 
lished at Pruisen and Konderboschje, where tobacco, 
cotton and the castor oil plant are being successfully grown. 

The limestone formation of the hills in the vicinity is 
now being utilised for commercial purposes. 

Owing to its sheltered position from the east winds, its 
mildness of climate and entire freedom from dust, the town 
forms an ideal health resort, and is known locally as " The 
Sanatorium of the North." 

Makapan's Caves in the limestone formation are 
situated some twelve miles N. E. of Pot%v«l»t%T\j:&. '\!'CA»n 


caves — a favourite place for local picnic parties — were the 
scene of the fight in which Commandant Piet Potgieter 
was mortally wounded. 

Moord Drift, a few miles S. of the town, was the 
scene of the revolting massacre by Makapan's Kaffirs of 
the first Boer hunting party who travelled to this part of 
the Waterberg. The tree upon which the bodies of the 
unfortunate victims were exposed is still to be seen. 

Maishukye, on Magalakwen River, was the scene of 
the first fight of the Boers under Commandant (afterwards 
President) Kruger and the Mapelas tribe. In this conflict 
hundreds of natives threw themselves over the precipices 
and perished. Of considerable interest too are the Bush- 
men's Caves in this vicinity. 

Since 1904, when municipal government was granted, 
a Town Hall has been erected, and many new buildings 
have sprung up. The Government School is a fine build- 
ing. There is a branch of the National Bank, also a free 
reading-room and library, G. H. M. 

Municipality of Roodepoort-Maraisburg. 

This municipality lies between the municipal areas of 
Johannesburg and Krugersdorp. It comprises an area 
covered by the following farms : Paardekraal, Vogelstruis- 
fontein, Roodepoort and portions of Waterval, Weltevreden, 
Wilgespruit and Witpoortje, and includes the townships 
and villages of Roodepoort, Hamburg, Florida, Maraisburg 
and Greymont. 

Roodepoort, the largest of the above, is a fast grow- 
ing mining and commercial centre, and owing to the much 
better class of building which is now being erected is 
improved almost out of recognition from its pre-war days 
when it was little better than a mining camp. 

Florida, a pretty little village, is fast becoming a 
popular residential suburb of Johannesburg. 

Its present chief attraction is a small lake, which is a 
favourite pleasure resort of holiday-makers and picnic 
parties from Johannesburg and district. 



The district, which in common with most other places- 
in the Transvaal, had no Local Government before the war, 
was declared to be under the jurisdiction of a nominated 
Health Board on the 5th June, 1902. The Board con- 
sisted of the Magistrate as chairman, and four local 
members nominated by Government. This arrangement 
was superseded by a Proclamation in 1903, which declared 
the district of Roodepoort-Maraisburg to be an Urban 
District Board. Ordinance No. 41 of 1904 changed the 

r- ■ \ . 

' '"■ ' ^^*'d^^^| 



title of Urban District Board to that of "Municipality," 
the powers, however, remaining unchanged. 

On the 1st of April, 1905, Roodepoort-Maraisburg was- 
declared to be wholly under the provisions of Ordinance No. 
58 of 1903 (the Municipal Corporations Ordinance) and 
thereby had the title and dignity of a municipality conferied 
on it ; the Chairman of the Urban Council becoming first 
Mayor of Roodepoort-Maraisburg. 


The Council has been able to effect a considerable 
improvement in the district, but owing to its limited revenue 
and its policy of not attempting to borrow money until 
times should be better, a good deal yet remains to be 
•done in the way of road-making, lighting, etc. The 
municipality suffers in comparison with many other munici- 
pilaties in that it possesses no Town Lands or endowment 
of any sort. Another disability under which the Council 
at present labours is that all land outside stand-townships 
is held under claim licence, and is therefore not rateable 
and brings in no revenue, and would, moreover, prove very 
■expensive to acquire if wanted at any time for municipal 
purposes. It is hoped, however, that the Financial 
Relations Commission appointed by Government may be 
able to offer some measure of compensation for the loss of 
these revenues. The Rand Water Board is expected to be 
able to supply the Council with water early m 1906. At 
present water is derived from wells sunk on individual 

The district possesses historical interest from the fact 
that it was at Wilgespruit, within the municipal area, that 
Mr. Fred Struben made his great discovery of the Wit- 
watersrand goldfields, and in December, 1885, erected there 
a five-stamp battery, the first to be erected on the goldfields 
of the Rand. Although it is true that Struben's "Confidence 
Reef* was a quartz vein, and not the famous conglomerate 
or " Banket " formation which is the characteristic of the 
" Main Reef," yet to Mr. Struben must be given the credit 
of having been the discoverer of the Rand goldfields. 
There is little doubt that he was the first person to recognise 
the auriferous nature of the banket formation, and was the 
first to locate a payable banket reef, which he did in March, 
1886, on farm Vogelstruisfontein, and which is now called 
the " Bird Reef," and lies a little to the south of the Main 
Reef, the true gold-carrier. 

The latter was accidentally discovered by a man 
named Walker, who made the discovery of a banket for- 
mation while quarrying stone for the erection of a cottage, 
and reported the find to Mr. Struben ; who was then able 
to locate the Main Reef series on the western portion of 


Vogelstruisfontein, and on this great Main Reef series has 
been built up the greatest gold-mining industry in the world. 

It is worthy of note that the North Rand Reefs, which 
are adjacent to Struben's " Confidence Reef," after lying 
neglected for nearly twenty years, are now being prominently 
brought to the public notice. The late " strike " near 
Witpoortje, which is of a very rich nature, has also helped 
the belief that the North Reefs may after all be the carriers 
of gold in payable quantities. 

Doornkop, the scene of Dr. Jameson's defeat by the 
Boers and the finale of the ill-fated Jameson Raid, is also 
within the district. J. S. M. 

Rustenburg District. 

The District of Rustenburg, situated in the Western 
Transvaal, is one of the largest districts in the country. 

It is, however, in comparison to its size, but sparsely 
populated, containing 20,000 whites and 40,000 natives. 

There is but one town in the district, that of 
Rustenburg, which is also the seat of Magistracy. The 
town itself contains some six or seven hundred inhabitants. 
It is one of the oldest towns in the Transvaal, and many of 
the old thatched roofed mud-floored houses still standing 
give it a very picturesque appearance. 

The town was at one time the meeting-place of the 
Volksraad, and in one of the streets is still to be seen an 
immense old tree under the shadows of which, it is said, it 
was customary to hold church services before the present 
existing churches were built. 

This district has always had a peculiar interest as hav- 
ing been the home of the late President Kruger. 

The climate of the district is sub-tropical. The soil is 
composed chiefly of either black or red loam. 

It is possible to grow practically any kind of fruit or 
vegetable, while cereals and tobacco do remarkably well. 
The great drawback to the district, however, is scarcity of 
water. No irrigation works of any kind have as yet been 
made, and the only cultivated farms are those where ict\^^.- 
tion can be carried on by the very pivmv^\N^ xsia'OcisA A 


drawing water by means of a furrow from some river, 
or where the farmer is sufficiently fortunate to have one or 
more sufficiently strong springs rising on his ground to 
water a small patch of land. 

Given a means of saving the surplus water in rainy 
seasons or of obtaining artesian water the district has great 
possibilities before it. 

Oranges and tobacco are the chief articles for which 
the district is at present famed. The finest oranges in the 
country are grown in this district, and it is the home of the 
well-known Magaliesberg tobacco, so named after the 
Magaliesberg range of mountains which passes through the 
district. Rustenburg tobacco is known throughout the 
length and breadth of South Africa, and an attempt is now 
being made to introduce it into the English markets. 

A railway is soon to connect Rustenburg with Pretoria. 

R. M. 


This little township lies in the Western Transvaal, on 
what has been presumptively called the Hartz River. On 
some maps it still retains its old Kaffir name of Mamusa. 
Its history, as recorded by the older inhabitants of the 
town, dates from January, 1882, when two rival Koranna 
chiefs made war with one another over a question of 
territory. The one was called Mankorane, who was 
supreme in that portion of British Bechuanaland where 
Vryburg now stands. The other was Masouw, who ruled 
the old stad of Mamusa. Each of these chiefs obtained the 
assistance of white volunteers, on the understanding that 
they were to receive land for their aid. The 28th of July 
of the same year found Mankorane badly defeated, and 
Masouw inflated with victory. The British Government, to 
prevent further trouble, defined the boundaries of the little 
Republic of Stellaland, which existed until 1884, when 
President Kruger went to England and signed the con- 
vention which gave the Transvaal its present boundary. 

Masouw was then in Transvaal territory, and was accord- 

ingly called upon to pay hut taxes. This he persistently 

refused to do, with the result tbat Genital Jouberti with a 


small commando, was sent to remonstrate with him. 
The two forces met on a kopje to the north of where the 
present township lies ; and one of the white men en- 
deavoured to disarm a native who was flourishing a gun 
defiantly. A shot was discharged, and the fight immedi- 
ately became general. About ten white men were killed, 
and Masouw's little army was almost annihilated. 

Masouw was found, in his jacket of brown velveteen, 
dead where he had fallen, with two bullet wounds through 
his body. At the back of the kopje the graves of the white 
victims may still be seen, enclosed for protection by iron 
rails. The victims included the two men whose names are 
perpetuated in that of the white man's town which they 
gave their lives to establish. Captain Schweizer and Field- 
Cornet Reneke. 

The district has little or no scenery to boast of, except- 
ing perhaps the wild kloofs of the Morkani Rand, where 
the baboons still reign by undisputed right of possession. 

It is adapted for stock- farming, but is too dry for 
agriculture. The hopes of Schweizer- Reneke people are 
now reposed in the exploiting of numerous farms for gold. 
As yet mining is in embryo, but if reports are to be believed, 
Schweizer-Reneke's best days are yet to come. — W. E. W. 


The town of Springs is situated 31 miles east of 
Johannesburg and forms the terminus of the Springs- 
Randfontein section of the C.S.A. Railways. A line is 
in course of construction thence to Delagoa Bay, via 
Ermelo, which will greatly decrease the distance from that 
Port to Johannesburg. Trains are now running on the 
first section to Bethal. 

Springs has for many years been a large coal centre, 
and there are at present four collieries working, the daily 
output being about 2,500 tons. 

Boring operations have revealed the fact that the farms 
upon which coal is being mined are highly mineralised, and 
the proclamation of the district as a gold-field is arranged 
for as soon as the necessary preliminaries are cok!cv^\&^^^« 


All round the municipal area are diamond drillings, and 
the results ascertained so far are most satisfactory. 

The Geduld Proprietary Mines, Ltd., are busy sinking- 
six shafts near the town. Adjoining the Geduld Property 
is the Cloverfield Mine, and here also shaft-sinking is' 
actively proceeding. At Welgedacht there is a combined 
coal and gold proposition. Not far away are the sites of 
the Lace Proprietary Mines, Grootvlei Syndicate, East 
Rand Mining Estates, Ltd., and others, where the boring;s' 
have recently given promise of great things in the future. 

Judging from its name. Springs should have a good 
supply of water, but this is not so ; and the want of it has 
helped to keep the place in the background. Had water 
been plentiful there is no doubt that the importance of the 
place from a railway standpoint would have been greatly- 
augmented. This disadvantage will shortly be remedied. 

Another difficulty the town has had to face has been 
the scarcity of building ground. Most of the ground is the 
property of the mining companies, and persons desirous of 
building have had to be content with putting their erections 
upon ground granted by the mines on monthly tenancies. 
This has now been remedied, for the Government (which is 
the owner of the farm " Springs *') laid out and in Decem- 
ber last sold a township, every available erf being purchased 
at a good price, the highest being ^600. The Geduld 
Deep, Limited, followed suit by offering for sale 900 stands, 
and a good many were disposed of. Both business and 
residential premises are now springing up quickly, amongst 
them being an hotel and a Masonic Temple. 

Government values the mineral rights in the farm 
" Springs,*' containing some 816 morgen, at ;^5oo,ooo. 

The town boasts of a fine Government school, a hand- 
some Post Office, banks and railway station. 

Religion is represented by the Presbyterian and 
Anglican places of worship. Wesleyans, Roman Catholics 
and Hebrews are also moving in the direction of obtaining 
accommodation for their adherents. 

The Town Council is negotiating for the purchase of a 

valuable block of property in one of the main streets, part 

of which is being used as municipal offices and the re- 



mainder as dwellings. The CoudcU is also taking in band 
the laying out of streets and the planting of trees through- 
out those townships. 

The area of the Municipality is 28*039 s<]uare miles, or 
17,945 ^cres. The present population is — White, 1,500; 
Coloured, 5,000. 



Population: — 480 whites, 368 natives. This village 
derived its name from the first owner of the farm on 
which it was built. It lies on the Schoonspruit River, five 
miles below the source. It is situated 32 miles from 
Potchefstroom and 24 miles from Frederikstad, the nearest 
railway station. The Schoonspruit, a strong permanent 
stream rising out of the Dolomite formation, t>i'Q'i ''i^ 


Klerksdorp into the Vaal River, and forms throughout its 
whole length a valley of conspicuous fertility. In and 
around Ventersdorp wheat, barley, oats and other cereals 
are grown to perfection. Roses and many other flowers 
may be seen in bloom for nine months in the year. The 
geological formation of this neighbourhood is not without 
interest. It is claimed that the Black Reef and the 
Hospital Hill shale run through the Town Commonage. 
The Ventersdorp boulder beds commence on the west, and 
are exposed for several miles in that direction. Granite is 
also found about two miles south-east of the village. 
Traces of lead, manganese, copper, and other minerals 
have been discovered in the vicinity. Some interesting 
specimens of chert arrow and spear heads and other 
Bushman relics have been found. T.O.H. 


Population : 455 whites, 456 coloured. 

Vereeniging is a small township at Vaal River on the 
border between the Transvaal and Orange River Colony. 
It was founded in 1892 by Messrs. Lewis & Marks, under 
a charter from the Government, and is adjacent to the coal 
mines and clay works of that firm. 

Politically, it is well known by its being the scene of 
three events of considerable importance in the recent history 
of South Africa. The first was at its inception in May, 
1892, when the meeting of Presidents Kruger and Reitz 
took place there, and is identified with the " Closer Union 
Policy." The second was in 1895 — t^® closing to traffic of 
Viljoen's Drift (the name of the ford or " drift " across 
the Vaal River at Vereeniging) which brought about the 
" Drifts Question," and an ultimatum from the Imperial 
Government. Finally, it marked the closing scene in the 
late war, by its being selected for the camp where the Boer 
leaders discussed and settled the Terms of Peace with 
Lords Milner and Kitchener. 

The scenery to an artist would probably appear flat 
and uninteresting, but to the geologist it affords unique at- 



tractions ; a section of all the series, from the Amygdaloidal 
Diabase to the most recent, being exposed within a short 
distance. There is abundant evidence of glacial action in 
the conglomerate which forms the base of the coal beds/ 
Striated boulders and erratics are plentiful, and root mark- 
ings at right angles to the bedding planes are to be seen. 

The sandstones and shales of the coal measures con- 
tain specimens of every fossil known to the Perm o- carboni- 
ferous flora in South Africa, and also plant remains bearing 
an affinity to those of the Northern Hemisphere, which fact 


has been used as evidence of the joining-up or junction of 
two groups. 

Although Vereeniging is still in embryo as a modern 
town, it was undoubtedly a place of note in Paleolithic 
times, stone implements in great variety being found in river 
drift; while flakes, chips, and unfinished implements are so 
numerous that one may reasonably conclude a great work- 
shop for their manufacture existed there. 

T. M.. t-. 



Population: — 1,342 whites, 907 aborigines, 133 colored. 
Heighl above sea level, 5,433 feet. The town is 175 miles 
by rail from Johannesburg. 

Volksrust was laid out as a township in 1888 on 
portions of the farms Leanwarne and Sandfontein, pur- 
chased for that purpose by the Government of the South 
African Republic. The town was little more than a 
stopping place for post-carts and a customs post until the 

construction of the railway from Charlestown to Johannes- 
burg. From this time Volksrust began to assume the 
position of "border town," railway centre, and "port of 
entry." It became also a receiving and distributing dep&t 
for the trade of the whole South-Eastern Transvaal. Prior 
to the outbreak of the war its population fell short of i,ooo. 
It was occupied by the Imperial Forces under General 
Buller in June, 1900, and, being garrisoned continuously 
during the remainder of the progress of hostilities, suffered 
little during the war. 

Since the war Volksrust has rapidly advanced, first- 
rate shops and dwellings have been built, roads and other 
public works are in progress, and the Town Offices have 
the reputation of being the finest Municipal Buildings 
erected in the Colony, outside of Johannesburg. There is 


an agricultural market twice a week — on Wednesdays and 

There are two Government Schools, several comfort- 
able hotels, and the usual places of worship. The town is 
supplied with water from a dam at Schuilhoek. is. per 
1,000 gallons is charged to those who use it. 

Majuba Hill, of military fame, is about \\ hours' drive 
from Volksrust, and commands a magnificent view of this 
hilly district. C. A. L. 

Wakkerstroom and District. 

Wakkerstroom district (including Piet Relief) is a very 
mountainous one, and lies along the northern Natal 
boundary from the Orange River Colony to Swazieland. 
It is about 200 miles long and from 20 to 80 miles wide. 

The western half is high veld, 5,000 to 6,500 feet above 
the sea, and is renowned for having always possessed the 
best sheep, horses, and cattle in the country. It enjoys the 
most perfect climate, both in summer and winter. The 
mountain scenery is magnificent, more especially from 
Castrol's Nek, 30 miles by road east of Volksrust, over- 
looking Piet Retief, Paul Pietersburg, and Vryheid, which 
lie some thousand feet almost perpendicularly below. A 
very extensive and grand panorama is also obtained from 
Joubert's Nek, above Rustfonteio, vKetb Vq« "Sa.^'a Ciwwst.'*^ 


ioubert is buried ; this is some 25 miles west of Volksrust 
y road, and on a clear day the hills by Harrismith, O.R.C.^ 
and the whole Drakensberg are to be seen. 

The eastern portion of the district varies in altitude 
from 3,000 to 5,000 feet above sea level, and is some- 
what warmer all the year round, though also very healthy 
— the only fever area being by the Lebombo mountains 
on the Swazie and Zulu borders. Almost any fruit 
will grow in this middle and low veld, which is well 
watered ; but owing to the distance from the railway 
(some 80 to 100 miles), the outside world fails to enjoy 
the excellent Piet Retief strawberries, peaches, figs,, 
oranges, and, last but not least, the tobacco which is 
grown there. It is to be regretted that tobacco growers do 
not combine and treat their ground and leaf, so as to ensure 
to the consumer an even blend. Coal exists in abundance 
on a number of farms. 

Gold has also been found in several places, and is^ 
indeed, being diligently worked in spite of the cost of trans- 
porting machinery. Petroleum, tin, and asbestos have beea 
obtained, but as yet not in payable quantities. 

Latterly, there have been decided advances in agricul- 
ture and stock breeding in the district. It is estimated that 
the area of ground under cultivation now is at least ten 
times more than before the war, while acres of young fruit 
trees have been planted and miles of black wattle sown. 

Stock farming is rapidly regaining its former position*, 
except in Piet Retief, where that terrible scourge, 
Rhodesian Red water, has been prevalent for the last two 
years, and has played havoc among the cattle. 

Many farmers have had to sell their cattle and have 
bought sheep, which appear more immune. Sheep certainly 
thrive wonderfully on both the high veld and low veld in 
this district. Horses do well above the Berg, but in the 
low-lying areas they suffer from horse-sickness, which in 
the neighbourhood of Piet Retief is often very bad. Con- 
sequently, donkeys fetch high prices thereabouts, as cattle 
are scarce, owing to Rhodesian Redwater. 

A light railway from Volksrust to Piet Retief is badly 


needed. Quantities of foodstuffs are grown, but unfortu- 
nately there is no m&rket. 

The capital of the district is Wakkerstroom, or more 
correctly, Marthinus Wesselstroom (contracted into M. W. 
Stroom), gaining its older name from Marthinus Pretorius, 
a former president. It has about 800 white inhabitants, 
and is picturesquely situated among the mountains, some, 
eighteen miles from the railway. It contains several hand- 
some Government offices and first-rate Higher and 
Elementary Government schools. 

The Resident Magistrate resides at Wakkerstroom. 
There are Assistant Resident Magistrates at Volksrust and 
Piet Retief, and Resident Justices of the Peace at Amers- 
foort, Schoongericht and Welkom. 

There are in this magisterial district six Government 
schools in the towns, and twelve Government farm schools; 
twelve Police posts scattered about the district, four Post 
and Telegraph Offices, and eight Post Agencies. Railway 
stations, Volksrust and Zandspruit. W. G. B. 


The District of Wolmaransstad, with the town of 
that name, was created a separate magisterial and 
electoral district in 1905. The town population at last 
census was 357 white and 113 coloured persons. 

The town is situated on the Makwassie Spruit, fifty 
miles from Klerksdorp, and seventy miles from Christiana. 
It is now the seat of the Resident Magistrate, who has his 
Assistant at Christiana, and Resident Justices of the Peace 
at Bloemhof and Schweizer-Reneke. 

The Klerksdorp- Fourteen Streams railway passes nine 
miles to the south of Wolmaransstad. 

The town was destroyed by the British troops during 
the recent war against the Boers. 

A large dam was constructed immediately above it, 
but was found or thought to be unsafe, and cut through. 
When reconstructed, it will serve the town with water for 
irrigation purposes and materially benefit the erf-holders, 
and thus ensure an increase of the population. 


There are no public buildings of any description, except 
a school. 

Diamonds have been found in the district, and much 
prospecting is going on for both diamonds and gold. 

The district, which may be described as purely pastoral, 
is exceptionally suited for all kinds of live stock, and no 
.necessity exists to " trek " with stock in the winter months. 

The climate is dry and healthy ; it is considered very 
good for consumptive patients. 

Zeerust and Marico District. 

The district of Marico has been called the garden of 
the Transvaal. It is situated in the extreme North- West 
of the Transvaal, has a 
white population of 
about 12,000, and a 
native population of 
about 25,000. Its area 
is 3,083 square miles. 

The district is 
divided into five wards, 
namely, Klein-Marico, 
Groot Marico, Bosch - 
veld, Highveld . and 
Malopo. It produces 
gold, silver, tin, copper, 
lead, plumbago, iron, 
cinnabar, coal, salt- 
petre, sulphur and as- 
bestos. The agricul- 
tural products are 
chiefly wheat, rye, oats, 
barley, maize, coffee 
and cotton. 

The district is also 

renowned for its fruit, 

both citrus and deci- 

TERFALL AT ZEERUST. duous, which finds a 



ready sale wherever introduced. Oranges, pompelmouses, 
shaddocks, citrons, lemons, naartjes, peaches, nectarines, 
apricots, apples, pears, quinces, figs, European andOriental 
plums and prunes, cherries, vines, walnuts, chestnuts, Dutch 
medlars, persimmons, almonds, bananas, blackberries, goose- 
berries, mulberries, loquats, olives, etc. All these varieties 
grow profusely in the district. 

Copper. — Of great historical value are the ancient 
copper mines on the farms " Vleifonlein " and " Kan- 


fontein " in the Boschveld ward, supposed to have been 
worked by the Phoenicians. 

Of equal historic interest are the enormous caves at 
'■ Wondergat " in the Malopo ward. The Matabele under 
Mosilikaise made their last stand there against the original 
Voortrekkers. Signs of the strife are siill visible at 
" Fendlingsplaats," Klein-Marico ward, and at " Sili- 
katskop," in Boschveld ward. 

ZEERUST is the principA\ to-«n to ftv^ &sX-Cv^^^ 


Marico. It is renowned for its most beautiful scenery, is 
situated about 130 miles from Pretoria, and 36 miles from 
Mafeking, and has a population of about 800, exclusive of 
natives. It boasts of five places of worship, two Govern- 
ment schools, a pubhc library and reading-room, two banks 
(Standard and National) besides a Goverrment Meteoro- 
logical Station, in charge of Mr, H. Dietrich, J. P., and a 
Government Free Nursery, superintended by Mr. A. H. 
le Roux. The population of Zeerust District in April, 1904, 
was — white 1,295, coloured 1,242. 

It is proposed to build a railway to connect Zeerust 
with Krugersdorp and Mafeking. 

Zeerust is administered by a Resident Magistrate and 
a Municipal Council of nine members. It has a Chamber 
of Commerce and an Agricultural Society. 

There are two smaller towns in the Marico district, 
viz., Jacobsdal, about eight miles to the south of Zeerust ; 
and Ottoshoop, about eighteen miles to the south-west of 
Zeerust. The latter is a mining settlement, administered by 
a Mining Commissioner and a Resident Justice of the Peace. 




I. — History. 

There is a tradition to the effect that gold was dis- 
covered in the Transvaal in 1834 t>y one Karel Kruger, 
who, in the course of a hunting expedition, accidentally 
found gold on the Witwatersrand, and returned to Cape- 
town with samples. Two years later Kruger re-appeared 
with a party to spy out the land and to shoot elephants 
Whilst on this trip they were attacked by the Matabele 
near where the town of Potchefstroom now stands, and the 
whole party, with the exception of two of its members, was 
killed. After this disaster and Kruger*s death nothing 
more was heard of gold in the Transvaal for nearly 20 
years. About 1854 another discovery of gold is said to 
have been made ; but the Boer authorities appear to have 
taken alarm at the possibility of mineral wealth attracting 
the attention of foreigners to their new country, and pro- 
specting was prohibited under severe penalties. Some 
twelve years later, however, the existence of auriferous 
formation in the Northern Transvaal was proved by a 
German explorer named Mauch. By this time the Boer 
Government had modified its views on the subject ; the re- 
strictions on prospecting were removed, and the search for 
gold was prosecuted openly and with vigour. With the 
discovery of the Lydenburg deposits, gold-mining in the 
Transvaal assumed a definite character. During the next 
few years the sphere of active operations was extended 
throughout this district, and embraced Pilgrim's Rest and 
numerous other camps. In 1872 the first Gold Laws were 
promulgated, and mineral rights were formally vested in 
the State. Gold-mining at this period was confined almost 
exclusively to alluvial diggings. Reef formations remained 
unexploited, and until 1883 the industry eked out a more or 
less precarious existence in the Ly detibMi^ ^\^\.^c.\- X\i. '^ons* 


year the discovery of Hoodie's Reef in De Kaap Valley 
diverted attention from the northern fields and led to a 
considerable influx into this neighbourhood of diggers and 
prospectors from the rest of South Africa and from Europe. 
Then followed the opening up of the famous Sheba mine, 
the discovery of which forms one of those romantic episodes 
almost invariably connected with the development of the 
mineral wealth of a country. After several months of 
unsuccessful search, so the story runs, a prospector sat 
down on a rock a few yards from the path he and his 
associates had made on their way to and fro between their 
prospecting area and their huts. With a hammer he some- 
what aimlessly struck off a piece of the rock, which at once 
arrested his attention. The chance blow led to the forma- 
tion of the Sheba Reef Gold Mining Company. Its shares 
rose rapidly and phenomenally ; the first gold ** boom " had 
set in. In two years Barberton was transformed from a 
mining camp to a town of considerable pretensions, with a 
population of 5000. The natural sequel was a wild specula- 
tion ; doubtful companies were floated, and the distrust so 
engendered was further increased by extravagant or in- 
competent management. Finally, the discovery of the 
Witwatersrand goldfields completed Barberton's discom- 
fiture ; it no longer proved the centre of attraction, but 
relapsed rapidly into a town one-third of its former size. 

The Witwatersrand, — Traces of ancient workings on 
the northern side of the range may be taken as a reliable 
indication of the fact that gold was known to exist in parts 
of the Witwatersrand district at a very early period. It 
was not, however, until the eighties of last century that 
this portion of the Transvaal again received practical and 
systematic attention. The honour of having discovered the 
Witwatersrand goldfields is by common consent given to 
Messrs. F. P. T. and H. W. Struben. Early in 1884 the 
two brothers commenced prospecting to the north-west of 
Krugersdorp, but found nothing of a payable nature. On 
September 18, Mr. F. Struben struck a rich vein on the 
farm Wilge Spruit, some twelve miles to the noith-west of 
the Johannesburg of to-day ; the brothers purchased ^ 
portion of this farm, and decided \.o Vkv^otX. ^ SxN^-'sX-axscs^ 



battery. Owing to the difficulties of transport and other 
delays, this small mill was not erected until December, 

1885. Meantime, in April, 1884, Mr. F. Struben discovered 
banket pebbles on the farm in which Krugersdorp is now 
situated, and during the same month he proved the exist- 
ence of the first banket reef on the Rand. In February, 

1 886, his indefatigable exertions were again rewarded by 
the discovery on the farm Vogelstruisfontein of what is 
DOW known as the Bird Reef. Fifty tons milled from here 
yielded about 6 dwts. to the ton. 



Although in the course of his operations Mr, Struben 
had discovered several banket beds and had milled ore from 
both north and south of the Main Reef, the actual dis- 
covery of this rich formation was made accidentally, while 
quarrying stone for building purposes, by a former employee 
of his, named Walker. The Main Reef was first located 
early in iS86on the farm Langlaagte. Snbsequently, Mr, 
Struben traced the formation to his farm Vogelstruisfontein 
and sank a shaft to a depth of 40 feet, the first shaft ever 
put down on the Main Reef. By this time the existence of 


gold along the Rand was an authenticated fact. During 
the months of September and October, 1886, most of the 
farms which have since been proved to contain the richest 
sections of the Main Reef series were proclaimed as gold- 
fields, and about the same time a township was surveyed 
by Mr. Johann Rissik, to be called Johannesburg after his 
name. The news of the discoveries on the Witwatersrand 
reached Kimberley in July, 1886, and within a short time 
many of the men whose names are prominently connected 
with the mining industry of the Rand, inclucUng Cecil J. 
Rhodes, were on their way to the new goldfields. On 
September 14, 1886, the first large company to mine the 
banket formation was floated ; it was the Witwatersrand 
Gold Mining Company, commonly known as ** Knights." 
In July of the following year the first . dividend to be 
officially paid by a company was declared by the Wemmer 
Mine, which after some two months' work with a five- 
stamp battery, was able to pay 40 per cent, on a capital 
actually issued of ;^io,ooo. This year, 1887, saw the 
erection of many small batteries east and west along the 
strike of the reef, and the commencement of the rapid 
growth of the mining industry. The total production for 
the year, according to the Chamber of Mines returns, was 
23,125 ozs. ; a year later it had risen to 208,121 ozs., and 
in 1889 to 369,557 ozs. 

The early days of gold-mining on the Rand were 
attended with many difficulties. From the outset a 
scarcity of native labour made itself felt. There was no 
railway communication with the coast until August, 1892, 
and prior to this date all machinery and supplies had to be 
brought up by slow and expensive ox and mule transport. 
The rate on heavy goods by ox waggon from Kimberley was 
35s. per 100 lbs. In October, 1889, the population on the 
Witwatersrand, numbering some 25,000 whites and 15,000 
natives, was threatened with the possibility of famine 
unless special efforts succeeded in the immediate augmenta- 
tion of existing food supplies. A bonus of ;^20 each to 
those who arrived at Johannesburg with the first 250 
waggons of food supplies from beyond th^ Tx^xssM'^aS. 
border was offered by the GovftinrcvetiX.. TN\^ ^-axa^ 



Government also lent its aid, and by this means the 
threatened famine was averted. 

With the year 1890 the gold-mining industry of the 
Rand entered upon what may be regarded as the second 
stage of its development. The working methods of the 
first stage were based on the old established lines of 
amalgamation and concentration. Many processes, new 
and old, were brought forward at this time to treat the 
concentrates, but of these the old Platiner chlorination 
process, or some modification of it, was the one which 

would probably have been generally adopted had not the 
cyanide process put it almost completely out of court.- 
This process was introduced by Mr. J. S. MacArthur. 
The first MacArthur- Forrest patent was applied for in 
England in October, 1887, and that in the Transvaal was 
dated November 28, 1888. In May, 1890, the first cyanide 
plant was erected by the Cassel Company on the Salisbury 
Mine for treating small lots of tailings and concentrates 
from different mines, in order to demonstrate to mine 
owners what could be done. It may be confidently asserted 


that, with the exception of the richest mines, nearly all the 
properties now working and paying satisfactory dividends 
would, in all probability, have been failures had it not been 
for the introduction of the cyanide process and its successful 
development by various workers on these fields. 

Here we may leave the history of the industry and 
turn to the details of gold- mining, as practised on the 
Witwatersrand. In passing, one would remind the visitor 
of a fact that will be broujsrht home by the most cursory 
inspection of these mines. The Witwatersrand is not a 
poor man's district. The mines as a whole are low grade, 
requiring large capital for equipment and development, 
and their future expansion and success depends largely on 
capital and cheap labour, in order to work the large bodies 
of low-grade ores and deep level holdings yet untouched. 

• H. T. M. B. 

II. — Mining Section. 

General, — From the geological description of the gold- 
bearing deposits of the Rand, it will be seen that the 
problem confronting the mining engineer is the working of 
tabular deposits of conglomerate, which outcrop at the 
surface, and which dip towards the south at an angle usually 
more or less steep near the outcrop, but decreasing in 
magnitude as depth is attained. Generally two reefs will 
pay to work, and sometimes three; occasionally, only one 
reef is worked. The reefs, if more than one is worked, may 
lie 140 feet or even more apart, or they may be quite close 
together. Their thickness varies from twelve feet to two or 
three inches. The workings in the case of a very thin reef 
must necessarily be much wider than the reef itself. 

Division into Mines, — The first mines to be worked 
were those which included the outcrops of the reefs, and, at 
first, the areas in many cases held by the mining com- 
panies were only one c'aim'*' deep. Subsequently, other 

* A mining claim in the Transvaal is, where reef mining is concerned, 
a rectangular block of ground, 150 Cape feet by 400 Cape feet, the 150 
feet being measured along the strike of the reef, and the 400 leet at right 
angles, or approximately right angles to it. A. C«k.^ ^ckQ,v'\'5»«i^N'a\fc\>x\s* 
1*033 English ittX ; thus a claim has an area o^ \'^^<^% ^cxfe%. 


claims were acquired and certain exchanges made, but in 
spite of this, the areas of many of the outcrop mines are 
comparatively small and somewhat irregular. 

When the outcrop mines began to be profitably 
worked, the claims lying to the dip were pegged off. Those 
immediately to the south of the outcrop mines were made 
up into convenient blocks for working, and companies were 
formed for their exploitation. These constitute the first 
row of deep level mines, and their areas were naturally for 
the most part larger and of more regular shape than the 
areas of the outcrop companies. Still further to the south 
there is now the second row of deep level companies. The 
areas of the second row deep levels are greater than the first 
row ; because the shafts, being so much more costly,must be 
arranged to serve a greater area. This implies larger mills^ 
and generally a greater capital expenditure. From three- 
quarters to a million sterling is the amount required for a 
first row deep level for equipment and development on the 
basis of 200 stamps, before the milling stage is reached. 
The thickness, number and richness of the payable reefs 
expected in a property have an important effect in deter- 
mining its size. At present, the ideas of Rand engineers 
are somewhat unsettled on the question of the best size for 
properties, but the tendency both in the case of outcrops 
and deep levels is towards larger mills and more extensive 

Though a number of the first row of deep level com- 
panies has now been milling for some years, it must be 
understood that in the poorer sections of the Rand practically 
no work has been done on deep levels at all. Comparatively 
little has been done on the second row of deep level mines 
even in the central section of the Rand, though the 
Robinson Deep is an example of a mine belonging to this 
zone which is now crushing with 200 stamps. 

General System of Working, — The mines are worked by 

means of shafts, which form channels of communication 

with the surface and levels. Levels are horizontal tunnels 

driven along the reefs at intervals of from 150 to 250 feet, 

measured along the inclination of the reefs. Communica- 

tj'ons are made between the levels at *\t\\.et\a\s ol itom ^00 


to 600 feet. These communications are usually known as 
winzes, though when they have been put up from the lower 
level to the one above they aie sometimes spoken of as 
raises. In this manner, the tabular deposits are divided 
into rectangular panels, and the ore which has been so 
exposed is said to be " developed." Development work is 
always comparatively expensive. It is followed by the 
profitable working away of the ore in the panels by a pro- 
cess known as " atoping." As the value of the ore in the 

different sections of a mine usually varies, it is necessary to 
have a considerable quantity of ore developed, in order that 
a fair average grade may be maintained in regular working. 
Considerable development is also necessary in order that 
there may be a sufficient number of sloping places avail- 
able. For instance, a mill with 200 stamps, running full 
time, will crush 30,000 tons of ore a month, that is 360,000 
tons in a. year. To keep such a mill going, and to average 
the grade in a mine which shews tattex *\itfc^\:ia.^ ■^tjJ.m.^^, 


there should be somewhere in the neighbourhood of a 
million tons of ore developed. When once the milling 
stage is reached on a mine, shaft sinking, development and 
sloping all go on simultaneously, the object being to develop 
each month at least as much ore as is stoped. Thus it will 
be seen that in the latter stages of the life of a mine develop- 
ment costs very little, whilst on the other hand, it is a heavy 
charge with no offset durirg the period before milling com- 
mences. It might be added that none of the rock in the 


mines of the Rand can be worked by the pick alone. The 
invariable method is to bore holes by hand or machine 
drills driven by compressed air, and to blast the rock with 
strong explosives. 

Shafts. — On the Rand, practically ail the shafts are 
rectangular in plan. In early days a few vertical circular 
shafts were sunk to inlersecl the reef at comparatively 
shallow depths, but the circular form was never popular, 
and has been entirely abandoned for many years. 


On the outcrop mines, the shafts are usually inclined^ 
and follow more or less the angle of dip of the reefs. The 
inclination is often uniform for the whole depth of the shaft, 
though there are usually one or two turns. It would not 
do, however, to follow in detail the eccentricities of the reef, 
or hoisting could not be carried on at a sufficiently rapid 
rate. There are generally (either one or two shafts on a 
mine, according to its area. Usually the shafts on an 
outcrop mine have three compartments — two for hoisting 
and the third for a ladderway, pumps, pipes carrying com- 
pressed air, and electric cables. The size may be some 
1 6 feet by 6 feet, the long axis being parallel to the strike 
of the reefs. 

In the case of the first row of deep level mines, the shafts 
are sunk vertically to the reefs, and then turned into incline 
shafts, a curve of large radius being put in at the bend. 
They have for the most part been commenced near the 
outcrop boundary of the mine on which they are situated ; 
the reason for this being that something is saved in the 
length of the vertical portion of the shaft, and that develop- 
ment and consequently milling can be commenced at an 
earlier date than would be the case if they had been 
located near the dip boundary. These shafts mostly have 
three compartments, though some have five, comprising 
four compartments for hoisting and one for ladders and 

In the case of mines where the reef occurs at greater 
depths, the cost of shaft sinking is so great that it is 
necessary to sink very large shafts, and to make a single 
shaft serve a greater area than has been usual with shallower 
properties. As an example the Driefontein Deep may be 
mentioned* The area is 255 claims, and a single shaft is 
being sunk. Its dimensions inside timbers are 38 feet by 
6 feet, and it has seven compartments, six of which are for 
hoisting. The long axis of the shaft is across the strike of 
the strata, as it is not intended to turn it when the reef is 
reached. The depth at which the reef will be struck is 
estimated at about 3,900 feet. 

The deepest shaft on the Rand at the present time is 
the Catlin Shaft on the Jupiter Nlitv^. \\. \\^^ -a. ^«^"^ ^ 



4,oio feet. There are several shafts approaching 3,000 
feet in depth. 

y^ Shafts are sunk by both hand and machine drilling, 
the difference in speed being comparatively little. Hand 
drilling is more usually employed. The explosive used is 
blasting gelatine, the strongest available. It is a compound 
of nitro- glycerine and gun cotton. The speed of sinking 
varies ; 100 feet per month is fairly good work, but 150 feet 
has been regularly attained, and even 200 feet has been sunk 


for an odd month or two. Shafts on the Rand do not 
require to be supported for more than from 150 feet to 250 
feet in depth from the surface. Frames of timber, 5 to 6 
feet apart, are generally employed with close-set lagging 
boards behind them to the depth fot which the support is 
necessary. Below this depth frames without lagging boards 
are often put in, though sometimes only dividing timbers 
hitched into the rock are used, to support the guides for the 


CrosS'CutSy Levels and Winzes, — Seeing that the incline 
shafts are not as a rule exactly in the plane of either of the 
reefs worked, or, if in the plane of one reef, possibly at 
some distance from the plane of the other reef, it is 
evidently necessary to put in cross drives. These are^ 
always at right angles to the strike of the reef, thus insuring 
that they are of minimum length ; they are designated cross- 
cuts. Cross-cuts are also driven to recover the reef after it 
has been faulted. Whilst cross-cuts are driven straight^ 
levels follow the windings of the reef. They are usually 
about 7 feet high by 5 feet wide. Winzes are generally 
sunk from one level to within say 50 feet of the level below ^ 
the connection being completed by rising from the level 
below as soon as it has been driven under the winze. 
Small air-driven winches are used to hoist the rock out of 
winzes as they are being sunk. 

Cross-cuts and levels are usually driven by means of 
machine drills, for though this method is a little more 
expensive than hand drilling, it is very much quicker, and 
and as a rule speed in development work is an important 
consideration. Winzes are usually sunk by hand drilling. 
The usual rate of speed at which levels are driven is 
some 80 to 100 feet per month, while winzes are sunk at 
the rate of 30 to 60 feet per month. 

Stoping, — When a reef has been cut into panels by 
levels and winzes, the next question is stoping. In stoping 
a continuous working face is opened from one level to 
another, and the panel is swept out in the direction of the 
strike of the bed. Pillars are usually left at intervals in 
order to support the roof. 

Stoping is always commenced from the winzes, and on 
the Rand it is usual to commence from the upper corners- 
of a panel, the working face not being directly along the 
dip, but at an angle to it. Stoping may be carried on by 
machine drilling or by hand drilling. The latter is usually 
the most satisfactory method, except when the stopes are 
large, though machine drilling requires less labour. In 
hand drilling the face of the stope is arraw^^id \xv ^\k^%\sl 
order that the explosive may be mote eftecXxN^'vc^N^'^^''^^^'^ 

■ 84 


than would otherwise be the case. To look down a long 
band-stope, where perhaps 20 natives are drilling at one 
face, is a most interesting sight. The natives strike their 
-drills simultaneously with rhythmical regularity, and often 
accompany their work by singing. Each worker has a 
candle to throw light on his drill, but this feeble glimmer 
only partially lights the human hive; and, as the natives 
are almost naked, the scene produces a weird and mysterious 
effect on the observer. 












For the most part the explosive used in stoping is 
gelignite, a weaker explosive than that used in developmeot 
work. About half a ton of rock per shift is broken by each 
native drilling, whilst each machine drill breaks from 7 to 
12 tons of rock per shift. 

The size of slopes varies from 20 inches to 12 or 14, 
feet. Invariably a certain amount of waste rock is broken 
with the banket, but this is to some extent sorted out at 
t&e surface bolore the rock is crusbed. 


Faults and Dykes. — Faults and dykes are the causes of 
considerable id convenience and additional expense in 
mining operations on the Rand. Occasionally the Reef is 
duplicated over a small area, but more usually there is some 
loss of reef, and both development work and stoping are 
more costly when faults and dykes are numerous. 

Transporl.^khet the ore has been broken in a stope, 
it has to be got down to the level below. When the reef 
is steep this is an easy matter, but wheti the reef is flat and 

the footwall is rough the ore has to be laboriously shovelled 
down. In order to reduce the expense of this shovelling 
and also to reduce the large number of boys required, Rand 
engineers have been exercising their ingenuity for the last 
two or three years in designing stope conveyors, several 
varieties of which are now in successful operation. 

When the ore arrives at the level it is delivered into 
waftgODS by means of small shoots. Usually 16 cubic foot 
waggons are used, and they are pushed along the levels by 
Datives. This is a somewhat primitive melUoi o^ \.\^-Ks^-t>.,. 


but the crookedness of the levels prevents mechanical haul- 
age being employed. However, there is no doubt but that 
some cheaper and more effective method of transport under- 
ground will be introduced for the larger deep level properties, 
where, as already explained, the shafts are laid out to serve 
larger areas. On arrival at the shaft the ore is tipped into 
bins, which usually hold a considerable quantity of ore, 
perhaps a hundred tons. On the top of the bins are grizzleys 
made of steel rails. These are some nine inches apart, 
and they prevent very large pieces of rock being put into 
the bins. From the bins the ore is run directly into the 
skips which convey it up the shaft. 

Drainage and Ventilation, — The keeping of the mines 
<:lear of water is for the most part a very simple problem, 
as they are not heavily watered. Only one mine has 
hitherto met with any considerable stream, and there two 
and a half million gallons per day has to be dealt with. 
Usually the quantity is some 100,000 gallons per day. The 
pumps used are described in the section on Mechanical 

At both the eastern and western extremities of the 
Rand — that is, on Klipfontein and on Gemsbokfontein — 
the reefs run under dolomite, which is known to contain 
very large quantities of water, so that Rand engineers will 
probably have a new problem to deal with in this direction 
before long. 

Ventilation is naturally a problem of very great im- 
portance, though it is doubtful whether its economic 
significance is always quite as clearly recognised as its 
humanitarian aspect. Only in a few cases have artificial 
means of ventilation been necessary. For the most part, 
adjoining mines communicate with each other, and a good 
current of air flows through the principal passages of a 
mine. The difficult}' is rather in the direction of ventilating 
the development drives as they are being driven, and before 
communicating winzes have been completed. It may fairly 
be said that much more attention is paid to this subject, 
and that conditions are much better than they were before 
the war period. 



III.— Mechanical Engineering {Mine to Mill). 

The rock oo being brought to the surface is automatic- 
ally tipped on to " grizzieys " placed over bins constructed 
in the headgear. The headgears erected a few years ago 
were large timberstructures of about 60 to 70 feet in height, 
which not only provided for the hoisting and tipping opera- 
tions and for large bin storage, but also for the preliminary 
rock -breaking and 
sorting. In these 
headgears thecoarse 
rock from the bot- 
tom of the " grizz- 
ieys " is conducted 
through a washing 
trommel to a sorting 
table or belt, where 
the waete rock is 
picked out by hand, 
and passed to a 
waste bin to be con- 
veyed away to the 
dump along an ele- 
vated tramway. The 
pay rock is auto- 
matically conveyed 
to rock breakers of 
either the rotary or 
reciprocating type, 
this preliminary crushing being in many cases conducted with 
machines in series, so that the mine rock (of maximum size 
8 inches) is reduced first to 4 or 5 inch size, and then to 
ij inch, at which latter size it is passed to the mill with the 
fines. The rock requires to be elevated again to undergo a 
second crushing, as there is not sufficient height in the 
headgear to allow of distribution by gravity. In cases 
where the crusher house is not part of the headgear, this 
.atter is only about 30 feet high, and the coarse and medium 
rock is conveyed, generally by mechanical haul^e, to 
another station, where, after elevation, the sorting and 
crushing operations are effected. 



For transporting and raising the ore and waste as 
necessary during operations on the surface, the old time 
combination of truck haulage and mechanical vertical lift 
has been superseded in the more modern plants to a great 
extent by the adoption of the belt conveyor. A recent and 
very satisfactory innovation as an adjunct to the belt con- 
veyor is the automatic weighing machine which accurately 
records the weight of material transported. 

The modern head- 
gear is constructed 
of steel and is from 
loo to 125 feet in 
height. This con- 
struction, though 
slightlymore expen- 
sive in first cost, isof 
greater permanence 
than that of timber, 
and the fire risk, 
which of late has 
proved to be no 
slight one, is mini- 
mised. The crusher 
bouse in these cases 
is built on to the head- 
gear as an annexe, 
and in its construc- 
tion timber is dispen ■ 
sed with as far as 
possible. It has be 
necessary in the headg* 


1 found that the height of 125 feet is 
ler to provide suitable clear- 
ance between the tip and the sheaves, and also the head neces- 
sary for gravity distribution through the two stage crushing 
and sorting. A further elevation by conveyor belt is then 
required to deliver the ore into the bins in the battery. 
Arrangements are made so far automatic that the ore 
after arrival at the surface has not to be handled except 
during the sorting process. On the Rand there is no 
natural power available, and the power necessary for driving 
the machinery, of aggregate h.p. about i-]q,ooo,Ss %w«icais^ 


primarily in steam boilers, numbering about i,8oo. The 
large proportion of the plant is driven directly by steam 
engines, but considerable use is made of electrical and 
compressed air power distribution. The latter is used 
chiefly for rock drills, and for pumps and hoists to a lesser 
degree, while the former is utilised for such services as 
lighting, pumping and hoisting, reduction plant and surface 
transport. Quite recently the project of including the 
large steady load of the stamp mill in the electric drive has 
received much attention, and examples of this practice will 
not be much longer absent. In the case of a 200-stamp 
installation for a moderately deep-level mine, there will be 
probably a total average power demand of about 2,000 h.p, 
made up of 750 h.p. for air compressors, 650 h.p. for mill, 
200 h.p. for winding engines, 130 h.p. for pumping (at the 
rate of 200,000 gallons per 24 hours from a mine of moder- 
ate depth), and the remainder for surface work outside the 

Although the total power load will probably never 
exceed 2,500 h.p., yet it will be found that the aggregate 
horse power of prime movers erected will be about 4,000, 
spares having to be provided generally to allow of abso- 
lutely continuous work in spite of any breakdown in the 
machinery. This practice, by which each separate mine 
has been put to the expense of maintaining a large prime 
mover reserve, has been a great argument in favour of 
the combining of three or four mines for joint working 
with one central power station. At the East Rand Pro- 
prietary Mines this innovation is being introduced, and both 
electric power and compressed air are to be supplied from a 
central station to two or more mines of the group. 

The boilers used on these fields are of great variety, 
externally fired, Lancashire and Cornish, dryback, loco, 
type and water tube. The latter class of boiler is in great 
favour, and appears to be rivalling the externally fired 
boiler in popularity, while the Lancashire boiler still finds 
many adherents. 

The engines used for winding are invariably of the 

horizontal type, and built twin, so that a pair of cylinders 

operate on cranks at opposite ends of a shaft to which a 


pair of drums are connected by clutches. For outcrop 
mines, and also for sinking operEitions, the geared hoist has 
proved itself satisfactory, hut the necessity for higher sp>eeds 
of winding has produced the direct acting winder. The 
engines of these are generally compound, and the cylinders 
are arranged either cross-compound or twin-tandem. The 
valves of these engines are generally positively driven, 
either Corliss or double beat. Trip gear is provided on 
many of the big hoisting engines, but in some of these 


cases it is not used, although supplied, the trip rods being 
removed and the valves directly connected. Cylindro- 
conical drums are coming into use for deep-level winders, 
and three examples may be seen at the East Rand, the 
winding engines being cross -compound, with cylinders 30 
inch and 48 inch x 5-ft. stroke, and the drums 20 ft. in 
diameter tapering to 12 ft. The Whiting hoist is another 
popular style 01 winder. This is a sheave-driven hoist, the 
rope winding round a pair of sheaves fitted with " Walker" 


rings. The description of the Rand mines standard 
Whiting hoist is as follows: — Sheaves, 12 feet diameter, 
driven from a twin-tandem compound condensing engine. 
H.P. Cylinders, 17 inches diameter, and L.P Cylinders, 
28 inches; stroke, 5 feet. For sinking operations the 
sheaves are replaced by tandem parallel drums. The 
maximum speed of hoisting is about 4,000 feet per minute, 
but most winding plants are worked at a much slower speed. 

The most common practice in the past was to install 
the mill engine as the main power engine. Besides operat- 
ing the shafting for the battery, dynamos, mechanical 
haulage, crushers, etc., were driven off it by means of belts, 
friction clutches being generally preferred for connecting up 
these auxiliaries. A stand-by engine was provided, capable 
of doing all, or a large portion of, the same work. These 
engines were generally of the horizontal compound type, 
fitted with Corliss valve gear. The horse-power of the 
main engine ranged from about 300 in the case of a 60- 
stamp battery to 800 or 1,000 for one of 200 stamps, the 
excess of power being available for other work than the 
mill. About the years 1895 to 1897, i^ became the fashion 
to erect vertical engines for this work, but this class of 
engine has not generally proved satisfactory, and the 
horizontal type is now again the more popular for the mill. 
At the present time the advantages of electrical power dis- 
tribution being thoroughly recognised, it is usual in the 
design of a new plant to install the mill engine solely for 
the purpose of driving the stamp batteries, and to generate 
electric power by separate prime movers for use in the 
auxiliary plant. Each dynamo is driven by its own inde- 
pendent engine, and motors are installed for driving ore- 
breakers, sorting tables, tailings wheels, pumps, belt con- 
veyors, mechanical haulage, etc. 

Air Compressors. — These are for the most part of the 
horizontal two-stage compression type, with mechanically- 
operated valves, driven direct from cross-compound con- 
densing engines, high pressure air by high pressure steam, 
and low by low, a cooler being supplied to reduce the 
temperature of the air after the first stage compression. A 
very generally used machine, suitable for 35 drills, has 


Steam cylinders of 20 and 34 inches diameter, air cylinders 
of 20 and 33 inches diameter, 48 inch stroke, to be run at 
68 r.p.m., the i.h.p. required being about 450. Latterly 
the units have increased in size, and compressors up to 75- 
drill capacity are being erected, this size requiring about 
900 i.h.p. Vertical compressors have been installed in a 
few instances, but this type is not generally favoured by 
engineers. The number of air compressors erected is 152. 
These serve to transmit power underground in about loo- 
mines, the total i.h.p. being 48,373. The air leaves the 
compressors at a temperature of about 300 degrees F., and 
at a maximum pressure of 80 lbs., the average attained 
being about 75 lbs. Where, however, the compressors 
are overloaded with drills, much lower pressures obtain with 
consequent decreased efficiency. The air is transmitted 
down the mine through a steel pipe line, the usual allow- 
ance of sectional area being one square inch per drill. For 
drill work, reheating is not resorted to, but this practice 
has been adopted where the compressed air. is used for 
driving pumps or hoists. 

Electrical Poiver, — The uses of electric power in 
mining operations have already been stated. These are 
continually expanding, the only check being a certain want 
of confidence created by the lack of agreement among 
electrical engineers as to the most suitable sizes of power 
units, the most preferable voltages, cycles, etc. 

Most of the mines using electricity have their own 
generating plants, but several are supplied with current by 
power companies. In a few other cases current is supplied 
to one mine by another mine of the same financial group,, 
and this practice of the centralization of power plant is on 
the increase. The present tendency is all in favour of the 
three phase system, and although the fullest advantage 
cannot be taken of its economies in the limited distribution 
area of a mine, or even of a small group of mines, the 
flexibility of the system made possible by the ready trans- 
formation of the current makes it more economical and 
satisfactory generally for motors for mining work. With 
regard to the direct current plants on the mines, many of 
these are obsolete in pattern, and oa sevet^.V mvafts* n^^x^ 



is a very varied assottmeDt of machines, showing differences 
in voltages, winding, etc., which make the plant as a 
whole most inefficient. 

Mine Drainage and Water Supply.— Var the main 
pumps in mines with shafts not exceeding 1,500 feet in 
depth, the Cornish pump is most in favour, 42'5 % of the 
water discharged last year from the gold mines on the Rand 
was dealt with by this class of pump. Electrically driven 
pumps come next in order of preference with 38 %. These 


pumps are generally 3-throw geared, single acting. About 
I % (iig,ooo gallons per 24 houri) was brought to the 
surface at the Rietfontein "A" Mine by means of a 
pump driven by hydraulic power. The remaining i8'5 % 
of the water discharged from the gold mines was lifted by 
direct driven pumps (generally double acting) actuated by 
steam or air, or by bailing tanks. The pumps used for 
mine drainage are nearly all of the reciprocating type, 
single or double acting, and in general fitted with ordinary 


self acting valves. In a few cases the Reidler or some- 
what similar valve system is in use and full advantage is 
taken of its suitability for high lift, — one pump delivering 
to the surface against a head of 1,220 feet. As a general 
rule, however, stage pumping prevails and lifts varying 
from 100 feet to 600 feet are adopted. For the ** feeder " 
pumps compressed air is generally used, but the use of 
motors is extending. The amount of water usually raised 
to the surface from each mine is about 100,000 gallons per 
24 hours, but a few have to deal with from four to six 
times this amount, while in the case of one very wet mine 
about two and a half million gallons per 24 hours have to 
be pumped out. The water pumped from the mines is 
usually employed in connection with the ore reduction 
plant on the surface. In some cases the quantity raised 
suffices and any further supply from other sources is 
unnecessary. The water is generally slightly acid, and not 
suitable for boiler feed unless chemically treated. A. 
further supply of water for the mines is obtained by the 
conservation of rain water draining naturally into reser- 
voirs, dams, pans, or wells. The total storage capacity of 
dams and reservoirs amount to over four thousand million 
gallons, and the quantity actually stored in them on 
June 30, 1904 was 3,607,243,300 gallons, while a further 
amount of 470,745,500 gallons was stored in pans and 
wells. The water requirements of the mining industry 
may be stated as the amount required as " make up " per 
24 hours per stamp. Taking an average throughout the 
mines, this appears to be 1,870 gallons for mill and 434 
gallons for boilers. The demand may also be expressed as 
380 gallons for mill and 89 gallons for boilers per ton of 
rock crushed under present prevailing circumstances. The 
commercial value of water, delivered on the mines in bulk, 
is about half a crown per 1,000 gallons. J. A. V. 



IV.— Metallurgical. 

The main contribution that Johannesburg has made to 
the industrial advancement of the world is the successful 
application on a huge scale of the cyanide process for the 
extraction of gold. In fact, metallurgy in South Africa is 
practically covered by the cyanide process. We have 
visions of a metallurgical city, where copper, lead and zinc, 
and even tin, will play important parts, but as yet the base 
metals in South Africa count for little. 


There is not much novelty in our mining methods, 
which are to a great extent applications of principles 
practised in the United States, Australia and other mming 
countries. But in metallurgy, the pioneers of the industry 
took up a process which was under a cloud, having been 
all but abandoned in the United Stales. 

Tbe action of potassium cyanide on gold has been known 
ibi- a Jong time. Faraday was weW awaie ol \X., W\. tbe first 


patent for the extraction of gold by the use of KCN 
{Potassium Cyanide) was taken out by J. H. Rae, in the 
United States in 1867. Some advance was made by J. W. 
Simpson in his patent of 1885, and although efforts were 
made to apply the process on a working scale, little was 

The names of J. S. M*Arthur and R. Forrest and W. 
Forrest, of Glasgow, will always be associated with the 
successful working out of the cyanide process. 

The cyanide process has to a large extent been the 
making of the Rand. Had it proved a failure, instead of 
the numerous smoke stacks one sees to-day, there would 
probably have been a small mining camp, with mines on 
the rich sections of the Central Rand. The cyanide 
process has made possible most of the mines of the Wit- 

The rival process, by chlorination, has almost ceased 
on the Rand. There are only two plants of any consequence 
in existence to-day, one at the Robinson Mine, the other at 
the Transvaal Chemical Works. 

There are several reasons why cyaniding has ousted 
chlorination. In the first place, roasting of the ore is 
essential to chlorination but not to cyaniding. No silver is 
extracted from ore in the chlorination process, but the 
cyanide process enables a fair amount of it to be produced. 

The conspicuous success of the cyanide process is due 
to the amenability of the ore. If the auriferous rock had 
been made to order, it could not have shown better results, 
for it offers no metallurgical complications. Had it done 
so, the indefatigable labours of the pioneer chemists and 
engineers would have overcome all obstacles. Hennen 
Jennings, who gave some of the best years of his life to 
the reef, John R. Williams, who did much to perfect the 
decantation of slimes. Von Gemet, Bettel, Butters and 
others, will long be gratefully remembered. 

We will now conduct our distinguished guests over a 
gold mine. No line can be drawn between its different 
branches. The mechanical processes overlap the mining 
work, and mining is overlapped by chemistry. The 
metallurgical part commences in the toSxie ^X^s^^^ \xi ^^$:«5» 


called stopes, where the ore is broken. In a mine where 
gold-bearing strata are only one inch thick, it is important 
that as little as possible of waste rock should be broken, for 
this waste rock greatly lowers the value per ton of the ore. 
Consequently, the stopes should be kept as narrow as 
possible. Therefore, waste rock has to be sorted out. 
From a mining point of view, it would be easier to widen 
the stopes, but this course would be bad from the metal- 
lurgical standpoint. 

In order to keep the stopes narrow, hand labour is 
essential. On some mines the margin between profit and 
loss lies in this " indirect sorting in stopes." If hand labour 
is used to break the rock, narrow stopes are possible, and 
the proposition is a payable one. If, through lack of 
labour, rock drills are used in the stopes, they must be 
widened, and when a mine has shallow deposits, these wide 
stopes, with the extra waste rock, may spell ruin for its 

Another instance of how mining overlaps metallurgy is 
in the explosives used for breaking the rock. If a powerful 
explosive, such as gelatine be used, a large percentage of 
the ore is converted into powder, which it is impossible to 
sort. For this reason it is often preferable to employ a 
milder explosive, to break the rock into ** sortable ** sizes. 

At the shafts there is a simple device for dividing the 
ore from the mine into three classes, coarse, made up of 
rocks from 3 inches upwards ; medium, rock from 3 inches 
to I inch ; fine, rock from i inch in size to powder. The 
device is known as a grizzley, a strong grating of flat iron 
bars, placed edgewise, the apertures being from i inch to 2 
inches, and the angle of inclination about 50^. 

The coarse rock is hauled to one bin of the sorting 
house, the medium to another, and the fine material is 
dumped into a bin from which it is taken direct to the 

Several methods are used for getting the ore from the 

shafts to the sorting houses. Mule power is employed in 

one or two cases ; but endless ropes, or electrical and steam 

Jocomotive haulage, are the principal methods. Belt 

conveyors are sdso used. 



Three methods are adopted in sorting houses. The 
primitive method of spreading the ore to be sorted on a 
floor and washing it with a hose held by a Kaffir, as 
introduced by J. Harry Johns, is still practised on the 
Ferreira Mine. It has some advantages over later methods. 
Complete sorting is possible, the material remaining on the 
floor until all the waste rock is picked out. A great draw- 
back to this method is the number of Kaffirs required for 
sorting. At the Ferreira, 115 Kaffirs are employed in the 


work, whereas with other methods 38 Kaffirs would be 
sufficient. When labourers are scarce, the number em- 
ployed in the sorting houses is a consideration. 

As a labour-saving device circular tables were therefore 
introduced. The ore (save the " fines," which go direct to 
the mill) falls on to the table and is thoroughly washed, in 
order to allow the sorters to distinguish between reef and 
waste. The table revolves and the sorters pick out the 
waste rock, throwing it into a waste bva. ¥\t£a^, "^0% 


sorted material, considerably enriched by the removal of 
the barren rock, falls into a large crusher, where the ore is 
crushed small before going to the stamp battery. 

Another sorting method is to employ endless belts in 
place of circular tables, the sorters standing on each side of 
the belt and picking off the waste rock as the belt moves. 
Of late, belts have become quite common on the Rand/ 

Sorting the ore is a very important part of the 
metallurgical operation. If it is carelessly done, pieces of 
reef are thrown into the waste bin and the gold lost. An 
assay of the waste rock leaving the sorting house is made 
periodically to see if gold-bearing reef is being thrown away. 
Chinese make very good sorters when properly supervised. 

The questions of sorting or not sorting and what per- 
centage to sort, have often been before the local scientific 
societies. The general opinion seems to be that there are 
times when more money can be made by sorting less. For 
instance, a 200-stamp mill may not have sufficient labour 
for more than 80 stamps. If sorting is used, the material 
thrown away as waste may contain enough gold to produce 
a profit of 6d. per ton. In other words, when a mine has 
idle stamps, it it is better to keep a few more stamps at 
work on lower grade material, provided any clear profit can 
be made by crushing the extra rock. 

On the other hand, suppose the mine has an abund- 
ant labour supply, and the mill bins are kept filled, then it 
is preferable to sort as closely as possible, even if the 
material thrown away shows a slighrt profit, for this material 
" stands in the way of" stuff of far higher grade. 

Such things as iron bars, pieces of wood, candles, bits 
of dynamite, etc., are picked out by the sorters, for, should 
they get into the mill, they cause much trouble. 

The waste water from the sorting plant carries off 
material in suspension, which contains gold. For this 
reason, all the wash water from the tables flows to settling 
pits. To aid settlement and to counteract the acidity of 
the material, it is well to feed lime into these pits. The 
overflow water from these pits carries a fine slime with 
^old in it. This slime is run direct to the cyanide plant. 
The sediment from the pits is sent to the mill. 


Three methods are in use for getting the sorted ore 
from the sorting station to the bins in the stamp battery, 
namely, by a large self-dumping skip, by endless rope 
haulage, and by endless belt conveyors. 

Having delivered the ore from the mine to the stamp 
battery, let us take a bit of it for examination. We grind 
our sample to a fine powder ready for panning. Panning 
is an art of the prospector, whereby the light, almost 
barren material is carefully washed away, the gold remain- 
ing with the heavy particles in the bottom of the pan. 

On looking at our washed sample in the pan, we find 
the colour that makes most eyes glisten, tiny specks of 
yellow gold. You wonder that in the rock no traces of gold 
could be seen. This is a peculiarity of the Witwatersrand 
reef. Specimens containing visible gold are found, but 
they are distinctly exceptional. Sometimes the reef assays 
20 to 30 ozs. per ton, and yet with the naked eye 
none of the precious metal can be seen. TUa teaaiOTi. Sat 
this is that the gold occurs in extremeX'^ fena %"ci\\ift. 


Placing a bit of mercury, or better still, a small piece 
of sodium amalgam in the pan, and rubbing it gently 
amougBI the material, all the tiny grains are taken up, and 
we look in vain for traces of gold in the washed material. 

And here on a small scale we get an illustration of the 
metallurgy of the Kand. The tiny bits of gold obtained in 
the pan are called " free " gold. This is readily taken up 
by mercury and that is the medium whereby " free" gold 
is caught in the mills. 


Although the eye cannot see it, assaying shows us that 
an appreciable and payable quantity of gold remains in the 
material left in the pan, even after the stuff has been com- 
pletely treated with mercury. This gold is called " bound " 
gold, and it is impossible to extract it in the mill by 
amale;^mation in the ordinary way. 

The " bound " gold in the Witwalersrand reef is not a 
chemical compound but simply gold hidden away in the 
recesses of the cubical pyrites. Vtercut^ fails to lay hold 


of this " bound *' gold, but potassium cyanide follows it 
into the cube. 

Examination with a microscope of a piece of the pyrites 
after cyanide treatment, shows that the iron pyrites cubes 
have numerous little holes in them, corkscrew fashion. 
These holes are made by the cyanide solution dissolving out 
the gold, following it into the interior of the cube, with an 
avidity for the gold and a disregard of the base metal that 
would do credit to a miser. If the cube be too large, the 
solution cannot penetrate to its centre and dissolve out the 
gold hidden there. 

It is for this reason that finer crushing is resorted to 
by means of stamps or by the later means of tube mills. 
The stamp mill has not attained its eminent position without 
competition. " Dry crushing " has been practised ; it has 
not only proved a failure, but has closed down mines, which, 
with the stamp battery, might have proved successful. 
Steam stamps have also been tried and some think there is 
a future for them on the Rand. 

Visitors to a gold mine battery will notice the simple 
but ingenious manner in which the stamps are lifted up, 
and the weight allowed to fall by gravity on to the ore in 
the mortar box below, crushing it to a fine sand. The 
method of automatically feeding the ore into the boxes will 
also catch the eye. Water runs into the box and there is a 
splash, splash, splash of crushed material and water falling 
from the screen and rolling over copper plates covered with 
mercury. As the material runs down the slightly inclined 
plates, the mercury greedily grabs the pieces of " free ** 
gold and forms an amalgam. 

At the bottom of the plates there is a launder or trough, 
which carries the material away to the cyanide works. 

Before leaving the battery let us note a few things. 
The men you see scrubbing the plates are performing an 
operation known as ** dressing '* the plates. Each plate is 
** dressed ** every four hours. ** Dressing " is simply pre- 
paring the surface of the copper with mercury, to catch the 

Once every twenty-four hours the plates are sct^j^-eA^ 
that is, the amalgam is taken off. TVie '■'' \Aa.cN5. ^•accA''^ ^s» 


also collected from the plates at this time. The amalgam 
from the plates is subjected to a process known as 
" squeezing." by placing the amalgam in a canvas cloth, 
and squeezing out the excess of mercury, either by hand or 
with a machine. After squeezing, the amalgam is a bard 
ball, containing about 30 per cent, of gold and 70 per cent, 
of mercury. About 25 per cent, of the gold from the mill 


is obtained from black sand. To extract the gold from the 
black sand, it is thoroughly roasted and then ground in a 
barrel with mercury. We will leave the amalgam in the 
mill manager's hands for the time being, and see later od 
what becomes of it. 

All the gold on the copper plates is riot taken off by 
scraping. Some of the amalgam is absorbed by the copper. 
la order to obtain this amalgam, the p\Eites subjected to 


" steaming " every three or four months. Even then the 
copper plates retain gold. When these plates are worn out, 
they are specially treated for the gold. By using plates 
made of muntz metal, the absorption of gold in the form of 
amalgam is almost done away with. As yet, muntz metal 
plates are not common on the Rand. 

Gold is as elusive as the will-o'-the-wisp and has the 
faculty of getting into places where it is not wanted. In 
spite of all care, pieces of amalgam get detached from the 
plates and fall into the launders, and if no means were t^en 
to catch this, it would find its way to the cyanide works, 
where only a small percentage of the gold would be won. 
To catch this amalgam, traps are put in below the plates : 
but even with traps, a considerable amount gets away. 

To reduce the loss to a minimum, auxiliary plates have 
been introduced, first on the Nigel Mine and later on at the 
Ferreira. At the latter, the plates are given a gentle shake, 
which adds to their effectiveness as " amalgam catchers." 
To show that these plates do catch a lot of gold, the figures 
of the Ferreira Mine for 1904 are interesting. Fifteen 
plates were working during the year, and 9576 ozs. 
amalgam, or 2,823 ozs. fine gold, worth ;^i 1,856 12s. were 
recovered. The working expenditure amounted to ;^io59, 
showing a profit of ;^i 0,797 12s. for 1904. 

It is essential that the ore be slightly alkaline. To 
overcome the natural acidity of the material from the mine, 
lime is freely used. The proper alkalinity of the material is 
•008. By the use of lime, the amount of gold recovered in 
the mill is increased. 

Frequently through the day a sample of the material 
falling on the plates is taken. Samples are also taken of 
the pulp after it has passed over the plates. These samples 
are carefully assayed for gold every day, and by comparing 
them, the percentage of gold caught on the plates is rapidly 

We will follow the pulp from the mill, down the 
launder, to the cyanide works. Remember that practically 
all the free gold is out of the material and that it is the 
" bound '* gold we are after. The first thing that catches 
the eye is a small automatic lime-feeder, which dto^%^ 



small bit of lime into the stream below every few minutes. 
Care is taken not to add too much lime here. 

The tailings wheel is one of the most characteristic 
parts of a Rand cyanide plant. It is a device by which the 
pulp is elevated and convejed from the mill into the tanks. 
A better scheme than these impressive wheels, fifty feet in 
diameter, for elevating the palp to the desired height, could 
not be devised. On some mines, pumps are used for lifting 


the pulp, but this is a poor method. In one or two cases, it 
is possible to make use of natural gradients. 

Not far from the tailinRS wheel, visitors will notice a 
series of V shaped boxes. This apparatus, known as spitz- 
kasten, is used to divide the pulp into three classes for 
treatment in the cyanide works. The pulp is falling i^ainst 
an upward flow of water, the " bead " for the water being 
obtained by placing a tank of water above the spitzkaslen. 
Naturally, only the heaviest particle can fall through this 
upward stream. These heavy particles run away to a 


tank, the balance of the material (lowing over the spitz- 
kasten. The heavy stuff is called " concentrates." 

The other material passes on through the spitzkasteD 
to a separate tank. There are two ways of distributing the 
material in tbe tanks, by means of the Butters-Mein 
distributor, or by a man with a hose. As a rule, the hose 
method is employed. 

It sounds very simple to say that the stuff from the 
spttzkasten is allowed to settle in a tank, but if this opera- 
tion be done carelessly, much trouble and loss is experienced. 


If the hose is not manipulated properly and the overflow 
gates looked after, slime settles in the tank with the 
sand. This slime is almost impervious, and if left in the 
sand tank, the amount of gold extracted from it is small, 
and worse still, the slime retains as moisture a large per- 
centage of tbe rich cyanide solution. Care must be taken, 
therefore, to get the slime out of the tank to tbe slime plant. 
Let us retarn to the tank containing concentrates. 
This material is tbe richest treated in the cyanide works, 
the average value along tbe Rand be\i\% aJt^iMt \i- i.-w'w.. X'^. 


takes about twenty days to finish the treatment of a tank of 
concentrates. Above this time, no matter how long the 
treatment is extended, little or no extra gold is extracted. 
The solution has remained in contact with concentrates 
during the period of the war, yet at the end of that time no 
more gold was extracted than is obtained after twenty-four 
or twenty-five hours* treatment. 

The value of the concentrates thrown away assays from 
I J to 2 dwts. In all industrial concerns, the material 
thrown away must be closely studied, so that waste can be 
brought to an absolute minimum. Engineers have made a 
careful study of this discarded material known as ** tailings." 
Almost all of the gold lost in tailings is found in one class 
of the material, the concentrates. The silicious material 
carries ofif very little gold. 

It is obvious that if the gold in the concentrates could 
be more completely extracted, the waste gold in tailings 
could be brought down to 4 or 5 per cent., whereas at 
present it is from 10 to 15 per cent. 

To solve this problem, the use of tube mills has been 
recommended. By the introduction of tube mills we are 
promised, not only a higher extraction, but a far greater 
crushing capacity in the mill, by being able to use a much 
coarser screen. Only the rich material, the concentrates, 
should be reground in the tube mill. The main object is to 
break up the cubical pyrites in which the gold is ** bound," 
by sliming the product, so that the gold may be more com- 
pletely extracted by further amalgamation and cyaniding. 

There is no need to follow the treatment of the con- 
centrates in the tank through all the days. Suffice it to 
say that the plan is to pump cyanide solution on the top of 
the concentrates, let it drain through to extract the gold, 
and then allow it to run by gravity to the Extractor 
house, where the gold in solution is precipitated on zinc 
shavings. The highest strength of solution is used for 
concentrates, namely '3. This '3 does not mean that in 
100 lbs. of water there is 30 lbs of K C.N. It is an 
abbreviation of "3/10 of i%," so that in every 100 lbs. of 
water, there is three-tenths of a pound of potassium 



We will pass now to the tank containing the second 
product from the spitzkasten, the " aands." The treatment 
is practically the same as for concentrates, except that only 
six days are required instead of twenty. As we contemplate 
one of these huge tanks, containing four hundred tons of 
sand, we are impressed by the game of " hide and seek " 
which goes on when the cyanide solution ia pumped on the 
materiaJ. The sand assays about 4 dwts. to the ton, so 
that in a tank there are, roughly, 80 ozs. of gold, spread all 


through the material, in tiny specks, securely hidden in the 
recesses of the pyrites. The cyanide solution is pumped 
on, and seeks out the infinitesimal pieces of gold so success- 
fully, that after its search only 10 per cent, or so remains in 
the sand. 

When the treatment is over, the sand is ready for 
discharge. This is done by opening the doors at the 
bottom of the tank, filling the sand into cars and removing 
the tracks by endless rope haula;ge Vq ftia \ai\\w\^ ""cikm^, •». 


landmark that the visitor will pronounce characteristic of 
Johannesburg. {See page 21 j,) 

We may now follow the cyanide solution, carrying the 
gold from the tanks to the extractor house, where the gold 
is precipitated ; or go direct to the slime plant where the 
third product of the pulp from the mill is treated. 

Slime is an impalpable powder formed by pounding 
the auriferous rock. When dry, it is as light as a feather 
and will float a long time before settling. When wet, it 
forms an impervious, sticky mud. Naturally, siich a pro- 
duct requires different treatment from concentrates and 
sands. In the Rand*s early days this slime problem was 
not attacked, but the slime was stored in dams as a practi- 
cally hopeless material. Thanks to the efforts of John 
R. Williams, in conjunction with Hennen Jennings, to 
C. Butters, Von Gernet and others, the decantation process 
for the treatment of slihie was worked out and perfected, so 
that to-day scarcely a mine on the Rand is without a slime 
plant. From a material which used to be considered hope- 
less, mines on the Rand are now making profits ranging 
from ^"1,000 to ;^3,ooo per month. 

Adverse critics have railed at the decantation process 
as crude and expensive, and have suggested filter pressing. 
The following returns for the month of April of a large 
group, treating nearly 50,000 tons of slime per month, are 
instructive : — 

Value of slime before treatment, 2* 177 dwts.; value 
of slime after treatment, '470 dwts. ; theoretical extraction, 
78-398 % ; actual extraction, 81778 % ; value of fine gold, 
;jfi 7,961 -48 ; cost per ton treated, 2/2-364; total profit, 
;^i2,673-28; profit per ton treated, 5/3*183. 

In ©ne case, the cost to treat a ton of slime was 
1/5-092. A process that can show such low working costs 
is neither crude nor expensive, and any new slime process 
will have difficulty in ousting the decantation method. 

Lime is freely used in the treatment of slime to cause 
the rapid settlement of the flocculent material, which other- 
wise would float for a long time. The amount of slime 
taken for a charge varies with the size of the tank, and 
whether an agitating gear is used. With small tanks the 


charge is about 40 to 50 toQs, whereas with large tanks the 
charge is from 100 to 120 tons. 

The tanks in a slime plant are of two kinds, receiving 
tanks and treatment tanks. The sHme runs into one of 
these, and the water is decanted off. The slime is then 
pumped with a weak cyanide solution into another tank. 
After settlement, the gold-bearing cyanide solution is also 
decanted off carefully into a large receiver, from which it 





£^^'•''^111^^ M "^^^ 



flows by gravity through zinc boxes in the extractor house 
where the gold is precipitated. 

The remaining slime is again treated with cyanide 
solution, to extract more gold, and is then discharged. 

Before entering the extractor house, we take a glance 
back at the super-imposed tanks, where the concentrates 
and sands are treated. The top tank is simply used ^'c 


receiving the sand. No treatment with solution goes on in 
the top tnnk. When it is full, the solution is lowered to 
the bottom tank, where the sand is treated. 

In the extractor house we notice a number of small 
iron tanks called receivers. There are generally three of 
them. The gold-bearing solutions flow to these receivers 
from the tanks. 

Then we note a number of large wooden boxes. The 
gold-bearing solutions £ow through these boxes, the gold 

being precipitated on to zinc shavings. Innumerable little 
hydrogen bubbles float to the top of the solution. The 
stone jar standing at the head of the box contains a solution 
of acetate of lead. The solution gets into the box, drop by 
drop, and helps precipitation. Before the war, an electrical 
method was used for precipitating gold from the sUme plant 
solutions. It was the method of Siemens and Halske. 
This process has now entirely disappeared from the Kand. 

In the large cyanide plants, the zinc boses are cleared 
up three times a month ; that is to say, a black slime con- 


taining the gold is taken from the bottom of the boxes. 
This material is placed in a large wooden tank in a corner 
of the extractor house, where it is treated with sulphuric 
acid to get rid of the zinc, etc. The residue left in the 
wooden tank is then pumped through a filter press, the 
liquid running away, while the black slimy material 
remains behind in the press. When the press is opened, 
we find some black cakes, containing about 50 per cent. gold. 

The best method of getting the gold from these 
" cakes " has been a question much discussed. The old 
style was to flux the material and then smelt in plumbago 
crucibles. Gold in the form of a button of 50 ozs. or so 
was found at the bottom of each crucible, after the moltei> 
refuse was poured off. These buttons were eventually 
melted together and then run into a mould. 

The bar of gold so obtained was very base, the bullion 
assaying from 690 to 735 fine gold. London refiners 
charged extortionately for refining this material. 

There is great improvement now in this respect. Gold 
from the cyanide works now assays 870. Some people 
have a mania for getting the gold extra fine, over 900. 
This mania can be carried too far, for there is a danger of 
losing silver. 

The old method of smelting has its shortcomings. It 
is expensive and tedious and the loss of gold seems to be 
high. A large amount of lead gets into the gold buttons. 
Lead in a gold bar, even in small quantities, is harmful. 

A forward step was made by the introduction of clay 
liners in plumbago pots. This allowed the use of oxidizing 
agents, such as manganese dioxide and nitre, together with, 
silicate of soda or ordinary sand, for fluxing off a large part 
of the base metal. 

As an improvement on the pot smelting of gold, Mr.^ 
Tavener, then cyanide manager of the Bonanza mine, 
brought out his process. For a time it was thought that 
we had struck the idaal method for treating the auriferous 
material from the cyanide works, but it is generally conceded 
now that although this new process has some advantages 
it is by no means perfect. 

The general scheme is as follovjs* \ — ^W Wtv-O*. ^-^^^ 


containing the gold are thoroughly mixed with a flux, the 
principal constituent of which is lead oxide. The fluxed 
material is then run down in an ordinary pan furnace. 
When the mass is thoroughly melted, the molten lead at 
the bottom of the furnace is run into bars called " pigs." 
This lead contains about 8 per cent, of gold. 

To get the gold from the lead, the base bullion is 
treated in a cupel furnace. The principle is quite simple. 
A large cupel, carefully prepared from bone ash, is put into 
the furnace. The pig lead is fed into the cupel, and as the 
pig melts down, another one is put into the cupel. A gentle 
blast of air plays on the molten surface, and oxidizes the 
lead which runs off as litharge through a gate cut in the 
bone ash, into a receptacle below the cupel. This oxide of 
lead from the cupel is not lost but ground up and used in 
the pan furnace at the next smelt. 

After all the lead is oxidized, the gold is left in the 
cupel as a flat cake. This is placed in a plumbago pot, 
melted and poured into a bar mould. After brushing up 
and stamping the name of the company on the gold, it is 
ready for shipment to London or Paris. A sample of the 
gold is taken for assay. 

One great objection to the Travener process is that a 
good deal of the gold sinks into the bottom of the furnace. 
On one mine i,ooo ozs. of gold were "tied up" in the 
bottom of the furnace. On poor mines, where every ounce 
counts, the management like to feel that they have their 
hands on every bit of the gold. Of course, this sunken gold 
is eventually recovered, but the bottom must be torn out 
of the furnace and the bricks ground up, a tedious 8|,nd 
expensive operation. 

We have not yet reached finality in extracting the 
gold from the auriferous material from the cyaiide works, 
but we are still looking for the ideal process. 

Before turning our backs on the cyanide works, to walk 
to the assay office, we take a passing glance at the tailings 
heap — a huge white monument of sand, the bite noir of the 
inhabitants on a mine during the dusty months of the year. 
It is satisfactory to note that although a present nuisance, 
these tailings heaps will, in the future, yield profits to the 


mines. A process is now under trial by means of which 
much of the gold thrown away in the tailings and considered 
lost, will be recovered at a small cost. What percentage 
of the gold now hidden away in the "dust centres" of 
Johannesburg will eventually be saved, is not known at 
present, enough is known, however, to state that many 
ounces of gold will be recovered in the future from the 
tailings heaps. 

What has become of the amalgam that we left in 


charge of the mill manager, composed of 30 per cent, gold 
and 70 per cent, mercury ? Every day the amalgam 
obtained is put into the strong room, until 3,000 ozs, to 
4,000 ozs. are collected. Then the gold is obtained from it 
by the process of retorting. 

The assayerand mill manager carry out this operation. 
It is one of the oldest known in metallurgy. The amalgam 
is placed in iron trays ; these trays are put into the retort, 
a furnace made up of a thick iron cylinder, hermetically 
closed at one end, with a smalV q^^\q^ «. "Csv*. ';j\ssj«. 



through which the fumes of mercury can escape to the 
condenser behind. 

The principle of the operation is very simple. A fire 
is lighted beneath the retort, and as the heat grows in 
intensity the mercury rises as a vapour from the amalgam, 
.and passes to the condenser, where the cold water circu- 
lating around the condenser causes the mercury to take a 
liquid form again. The mercury runs out into a large 
bucket, and is used again in the mill. In about seven or 

«ighl hours all the mercury is driven out of the amalgam 
and the gold is left behind, a spongey-looking ma^s. 

When the retort has cooled down, the door is taken off, 
and the tray coniaining the gold withdrawn. The"spongey" 
gold is then put into a plumbago pot, melted and poured 
into a bar ready for shipment. This pouring of the mill 
gold is one of the " show " operations, aud every visitor to 
Johannesburg should make an effort to see it. 

The object of this chapter vjas lo impress on our 


visitors what the cyanide process has accomplished for the 
Transvaal. When summing up the forces that have- 
helped on the progress of this country, the future historian 
should give due prominence to the share taken by thi& 
chemical process. T. L. C. 

V. — Labour. 

These fields have always suffered from the fact that 
they are located in a sparsely populated country, and con- 
sequently they have no reservoir of labour from which their 
requirements can be drawn. 

Although the native races have increased and multiplied 
under British protection, and have shown a capacity of 
surviving even the vices of the white man, they are not 
sufficiently numerous to provide an adequate labour supply r 
but they are sufficiently numerous and virile to make it 
necessary to take their existence into account, whatever our 
opinion may be about the advisability of making this 
wholly a white man's country. 

The history of the countries where white and black are 
thrown together clearly proves that the white are the 
dominant race, and it is a natural attitude that the white 
man should feel his superiority and relegate to the coloured 
man the lower grade of manual work. 

The mine owners have recognised this fact and have 
employed the white man as a skilled artisan, or as a foreman 
in charge of a gang of natives. 

During the stress of periods of acute shortage of labour 
before and since the war, attempts have been made to 
employ white men to do ordinary manual work, but these 
experiments have never proved successful, whether regarded 
from an economical or a social standpoint. 

In order to attract sufficient white workmen to these 
fields, importation has had to be resorted to, and constantly 
kept up, South Africa not having the necessary white 
population to supply the demands. 

It has not been necessary to have any formal associa- 
tion for the importation of white labour, as the natural 
attractions of gold-mining and the high rate of pay obtaining 
on these fiel h have been sufficient. 



According to the Report of the State Mining Engineer 
for the year ending 1904, the average rate of wages paid on 
the Witwatersrand to the technical and clerical staffs was 
£50^ per man per year, and the average yearly wage paid 
to other white employees on the same area was ;^329. 

The technical and clerical staffs are paid by the month ; 
the majority of the other employees are paid by the day, 
although in the case of many companies, the miners are 
paid by the foot driven or the square fathom stoped. This 
latter method of payment by results achieved tends to 
encourage the more capable workman to increased exertions 
and to eliminate the less desirable. 

From the Mines Department's statistics for the month 
of June 1905, it appears that on the gold mines of the 
Witwatersrand area, there were employed at that date 
16,158 whites, the total for the Transvaal gold mines being 
16,989. This is a considerably larger number of whites 
than has ever been previously employed on these fields.. 
Amongst them are representatives of almost every European 
nationality, but the British are in a very large majority^ 
The proportion of whites to all coloured labour for June^ 
1905 was I : 8-45. 

In July 1899, accordiuG^ to the statistics of the Mines 
Department, 12,530 white men and 107,482 Kaffirs were 
employed in the Witwatersrand gold mines. 

The outbreak of the war put a stop to this industrial 
machine, and destroyed the momentum which it had taken 
thirteen years of diligent effort to generate. It can be easily 
realised that individual endeavour, with its natural con- 
sequence of overlapping and waste of energy, could not 
restore the required number of labourers to start the 
machine going again at full speed. 

The Witwatersrand Native Labour Association, Ltd.^ 
was formed in order to recruit labour for the benefit of its 
members in all parts of Africa which are open for recruiting. 
The main sources of supply are — the Province of Mozam- 
bique, the Transvaal, Cape Colony, Bechuanaland, Basuto- 
land, Rhodesia and British Central African Protectorate. 

The Association had on December 31, 1904, 143 
recruiting stations in these territoues, >N\iA^\\.«ax^^'^^^^'^ 



European agents and recraiters, and over 2,000 native 

From the commencement of its work in March 1901, 
246,382 natives passed through its books, with the net 
result that on December 31, 1904 there were 76,611 
natives in the employment of the mining companies who 
were members of the Association and 5961 in the employ 
of contractors working for these members, making a total 
■ of 82,572 who were supplied by its efforts. To obtain these 








results, a sum of £"667,000 had been spent by the Associa- 
tion ; the expenditure for the year 1904 amounted to 

According to the returns of the Mines Department, 
there were employed in the gold mines of the Witwaters- 
rand area at the end of June, 95,309 natives and a total 
for the gold mines of the Transvaal of 104,902. 

Tbe average rate of pay earned by natives is at present 
J2S. per month. Food, accommoAaXion and medical attend- 



ance are provided free of cost, while the monthly tax of 2s* 
is also paid by their employers. 

The closest attention is now paid to the health of 
natives. Mine Compounds are under the supervision of 
Government officials. During the year 1904 the improve- 
ment of native quarters, the provision of change-houses 
and liberal additions to their food have had a marked effect 
in the diminution of the death-rate. The average death- 
rate for 1904 was 44*23 per thousand, as against 68 per 
thousand for 1903. 

On arrival at Johannesburg, natives recruited from 
low-lying districts are subjected to a second medical 
examination, and those who appear to require special con- 
sideration are not drafted to a mine until they become fit. 
From July 1904, when this system was introduced, to 
December 31, 1904, 5,849 natives were detained temporarily 
at the central compound ; of these, 4,852 were subsequently 
allowed to proceed to the mines; 331 were rejected as unfit 
for mine work, and were returned to their homes free of 
expense ; 119 died in hospital. 

' '^OiThe following table shows the results of the operations 
of the Native Labour Association since its inception : — 



Natives Received. 

1 4*851 





Wastage from all 



Of the 76,611 natives in the employment of the mines 
(members of the Association) on December 31, 1904, 32*73 
per cent, came from British territory, 66*23 from Portuguese 
territory, '87 from German South- West Africa, and '17 
from various sources. 

Chinese Labour, — Very soon after the re- starting of 
milling in 1902, it became evident that the scanty popu- 
lation available for recruiting would not supply the 
necessary labour required to enable the mines of the 
Witwatersrand to work at their maximum capacity. 

A Labour Commission, appointed in iqo^> tc^Q.V. 
lei^thy evidence and reported ttiaX \.Vi^ ^\c}«ci^a^^ ^wx*^^i^ '^ 


labour for all purposes in the Transvaal was 221,000. 
This calculation was borne out by the South African 
Native Affairs Commission, 1903-5, which was appointed 
to recommend a policy to be pursued with regard to native 
affairs by all the Colonies of South Africa. The Commis- 
sion estimated that 782,000 natives would be required for 
labour purposes in Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal, Swazie- 
land, Orange River Colony, Basutoland, Southern Rhoderia, 
and the Bechuanaland Protectorate, whilst the total 










number of natives likely to be at work at one and the 
same time would be only 474,000 — a shortage of over 

In order to meet this shortfall an Ordinance was 
introduced to the Legislative Council providing for the 
importation of indentured labour under stringent regu- 
lations from other countries than Africa. 

The Labour Importation Ordinance was passed by 
the Legislative Council on February 10, 1904, and came 
into force on May ig. On June 18, the first shipment of 
Chinese, 1,005 •" number, lecxmleA m ?)ia\AVi«a China, 


arrived at Durban, and a week later were installed on the 
Comet Mine on the East Rand. By the end of 1904, 
20,918 Chinese had arrived ; on June 30, 1905, their num- 
bers were 42,069 distributed among 27 mining companies. 
Before the end of July the twenty-fifth shipment will have 
arrived, bringing up the numbers to 46,000. 

Coolies from the southern provinces of China compare 
unfavourably in point of physique with the Northerners, 
and seem more prone to disease. Recruiting in these 
districts, therefore, has been discontinued. 

The Chinese are engaged for a period of three years. 

A few details regarding the landing of the coolies in 
South Africa may be of interest. 

As soon as the ship is given pratique on arrival at 
Durban, she is immediately berthed alongside the Bluff 
wharf, where special trains are in readiness to convey the 
labourers to the Agency's depot at Jacobs, at the head of 
the Bay. Disembarkation begins at once, and from 
the commencement until the last train load of coolies enter 
the dep6t not more than four or five hours elapse. An 
elaborate system of checking the numbers leaving the ship 
is carried out by representatives of the Natal Immigration 
Restriction Department, the Labour Importation Agency, 
and the African Boating Company, who are the landing 
agents. The numbers are again checked by the Labour 
Importation Agency, as the coolies file past the dep6t gate. 
On arrival at the dep6t the coolies are separated into 
batches for the individual mines for which the shipment is 
destined, and it is here that the functions of the Foreign 
Labour Department of the Transvaal commence. A batch 
is marshalled in front of the Transvaal Agent's office in the 
order in which they appear on the contract sheets or 
indenture paper, and are passed through the office one by 
one. Each coolie then goes through the following pro- 
cess : — He is asked his name and the number of the ticket 
he received in China, and, if necessary, he is compared 
with the photograph taken of each coolie in China before 
embarkation ; if this is satisfactory, he is given a metal 
passport stamped with a number, which is entered on the 
contract sheets against the original uuavbex ^n^tl vol Q^axsj^a., 



He then enters the next office, where his identilicatian is 
assured by going through the finger print process ; each 
finger mark of each hand is taken separately, and then the 
first, second and third fingers together of each hand. 
All these finger prints are properly classified, and no 
mistake can possibly occur as to a man's identification by 
this process. About 400 coolies are registered each day, 
this being the capacity of the special coolie trains provided 
for the journey. These trains are specialty fitted with 



sanitary compartments, electric light and drinking water 
supply, and leave each successive morning after the 
arrival of the ship, in charge of the Labour Agency's con- 
ductors. The journey to the Rand takes from twenty-six 
to twenty-eight hours, and three substantial hot meals are 
served to the coolies in the train en route. 

Wages. — The coolie receives from the date of his 
arrival on the mine a minimum rate of pay of 1/- per 
diem; if witbia six months of arrival the average rate of 


pay earned does not reach 50/- for 30 working days, the 
minimum rate has to be increased to 1/6 per diem. In 
practice, however, the necessity does not arise, as after a 
few months' residence, which are required to enable the 
coolies to attain a reasonable standard of efficiency, the 
mines allow the coolies to contract to do piece-work instead 
of working for day wages. By means of a system of 
bonuses, the coolies are then able to earn considerably more. 
For the coolies who have been enlisted by Tientsin firms 
and contractors a system of allotment of wages was 
instituted. Each coolie is asked before embarkation 
whether he wishes part of his wages to be paid monthly 
to his relatives in China ; if so, the amount is entered in 
the contract sheets, and the coolie signs or makes his 
mark in acknowledgment of the obligation. The coolie is 
then given a book of coupons, which he hands to his 
representative, who presents the book at stated intervals 
and is paid the monthly allotment, which varies between 
5/- and 15/- per month. A voluntary remittance system is 
being elaborated for the coolies* benefit, and the Foreign 
Labour Department also remit sums through the Transvaal 
Emigration Agents in China, if desired. 


























All other foods ... 




Total value 


Vital Statistics. — Taken as a whole the Chinese appear 
to be remarkably healthy. At the end oi ^•a.^^^'^^V'^^ 




peicentage of sick to tbe total employed on the Rand was 
3"28 and this is one of tbe worst months experienced here. 
The most troublesome complaint hitherto has been that of 
Beri-beri among the Southerners, and if Beri-beri cases are 
eliminated for the month of May the percentage of sick 
would only have been 26^. Mortality is equally satisfactory. 
Up to tbe end of May there has been a total of 410 deaths 
among the Chinese employed on the Wit waters rand ; of 
this total 83 have occurred from Beri-beri and 99 from 



accidents. Tbe following is therefore the death rate among 
the Chinese per thousand per annum for the 12 months 
ended May 31, 1905- 

From Beri-beri ... 4236 per thousand per annum. 
„ Accident ... 5'053 „ „ 

„ other causes ... 11*636 „ „ 

„ all causes ... 20-925 „ „ 

If deaths from accident are eliminated the death rate 
is ij'8/2per thousand per annum. 


VI. — Summary of the Processes used in the 

Extraction of Gold. 

The broken ore is raised from underground in skips, 
carrying about three tons per load. 

Arrived at the top of the headgear, the skips are 
automatically tilted up and the contents shot into an ore bin. 

On leaving the bin the rock is "sorted.*' The 
system mostly in vogue is the sorting table. 

The rock passes through a revolving screen, and is 
at the same time sprayed with water. It thence runs on 
to the revolving table. The sorters are ranged both 
within and without the circle of rock ; they pick out the 
waste and throw it into conveniently placed chutes. The 
pay rock is automatically scraped off at the far side of the 
table and runs down into the jaws of the crushers on the 
floor below.* 

The crushers are usually of the gyratory type, and the 
rock is delivered from them broken to a size sufficiently 
small for treatment in the stamp mill. 

From the crusher station the ore is hauled to the mill 
bins usually by mechanical means. 

At the bottom of the mill ore-bin are chutes, from 
which the rock is fed piece by piece into the mortar boxes, 
the flow being regulated by automatic feeders. 

The rock is broken by the stamps in the mortar boxes 
to a consistency of xine sand and slimes, and is water-borne 
through the screens over the copper amalgamating plates. 

The majority of the free gold is caught by the 
amalgam on the plates, while the particles held in the 
sands, the pyritic portion, and the flne gold in the slimes, 
are carried over the plates and fall from the launder into 
the sump at the base of the tailings- wheel. 

The water-borne tailings are raised by this means 
above the level of the cyanide works, which are so designed 
that no further elevation of the material is required 
throughout the rest of the treatment. 


From the launder-leading from the top of the tailings- 
wheel the tailings pass through a series of three or more 
hydraulic classifiers called Spitzlutten. 

These are boxes so constructed that the heavier sands 
and concentrates are drawn off at the bottom and are led 
into vats for special treatment, while the lighter sands and 
the slimes flow over and continue their course towards the 
general treatment vats. The concentrates obtained are 
either treated with cyanide solution in special vats, or are 
handed over to chlorination works for extraction of their 
gold contents. 

At the foot of the Spitzlutten, the sands and slimes 
pass through the Spitzkasten. 

This is an hydraulic classifier so constructed that by 
a definite pressure of water being introduced at the bottom 
of the box, the slimes are borne upwards and over the edge 
of the box, while the sands are drawn off through the 
bottom and are led away to the percolating vats. 

The sands from the Spitzkasten are run into the top 
vat through a flexible hose. 

When the vat is filled with material, the first cyanide 
solution is pumped on and is allowed to percolate through 
the mass. It is drawn off through the filter bed at the 
bottom of the vat and flows away to the extractor house. 

The discharge doors in the bottom of the tank are 
then opened and the sands are shovelled through into the 
lower vat, where more cyanide solution is pumped on and 
drawn off below. 

The mass of the sands is then washed with water to 
extract the remaining solution and the valueless residues 
are discharged through doors in the bottom of the vat into 
trucks and hauled away to the tailings-dump. 

The water-borne slimes, after leaving the Spitzkasten, 
are charged with a certain amount of lime by means of an 
ingenious automatic arrangement. 

They are then led into a further series of Spitzkasten, 

and the action of the added lime is such that the slimes 

settle in the Spitzkasten and are drawn off at the bottom, 

while the superfluous clear water flows off at the top and is 

returned to the reservoir. 


The slimes, which have now a gelatinous consistency, 
are run into the slime vats, where they are allowed to settle 
and concentrate, the bulk of the water being eliminated by 
decantation. They are then agitated with cyanide solution. 
The mass is allowed to settle, the solution is decanted off 
and the residue washed with water to remove the remaining 
solution. The residue is then discharged through the 
bottom of the vat into the slimes dam by aid of centrifugal 

The extractor house contains the extractor [loxes, the 
pumps for transferring the solutions and agitating the 
slimes, and in some cases for returning the clarified water 
to the mill. In it are also the acid vats for dissolving the 
zinc and the smelting furnaces for the final stage of the 
process. The gold-bearing cyanide solution flows in through 
the pipes at the head of the boxes and flows out, denuded 
of its gold contents at the foot, whence it is pumped to the 
solution vats to be used over again. 

[Fur the various milhods of trtatmeni within tht boxes the visitor is 
referrid to the article on metallurgy.'] 




VII. — Mining Statistics. 

The following are recent statistics, May 31, 1905, 
connected with the gold mining companies of the Wit- 
watersrand : — 

The distance along the strike of the Main Reef 
formation from Randfontein on the West to Holfontein on 
the East is 62 miles, throughout which extent the reef has 
been almost continuously traced. Of this area, the central 
section for a distance of about 12J miles has produced 
about 76 % of the gold won. 

Gold Production. — Witwatersrand Mines, 

Ozs. Fine Gold. 




■ 19,080 






















































* Includes 42,000 ozs., the estimated unrecorded production of the 
yesLTS 1887, 1888, 1889. 

The figures for the years succeeding the British re-occupa^ion will be 
found on page 2^6, 


The following 

table shows the total 

production of gold 

from all districts of the Transvaal for the year 1904 : — 


Value 'n £,. 




Ly den burg 















Other Districts 



Totals, 3,779,621 ;^i 6,054,809 

Tons Milled — Production — Dividends Paid. 

1887 to May 31st, 1905. 
Tons Milled ... ... 60,636,288 

Value of Gold Won ... ... ;^i 24,868, 128 

Dividends paid by 71 Companies ... ;^28, 700,656 

Gold Mining Companies 

— Producing 




Name of Group. 

Albu, G. & L. 

No. < 

3f Pro- 
Mines. V( 


No. of De- 
doping Mines. 


Total Number 

of Mines in 



Barnato Bros. 




Consolidated Gold-fields 

of South Africa 




Eckstein, H. & Co. ... 




Farrar Anglo-French... 




Goerz & Co. 




Neumann & Co. 




Rand Mines, Ltd 




Robinson, J. B. & Co.. 




Transvaal Gold- Fields 




Bailey, A. 

Cohen, H. Freeman ... 




Independent Coy.'s ... 




Totals, 64 1^^ aaci 


Table of 


OF Producing 

Companies for May, 


No. of Companies. 

Tons Milled. 

Value per Ton Milled. 



Under 25/- 



» 30/- 



yy 35/- 



n 40/- 



Over 40/- 




,» 50/- 




VIM. — Miscellaneous Intelligence. 

Boreholes, — The Western Rand Estates claim the 
deepest borehole on the Rand, having reached a depth of 
5,500 feet on the farm " Diepkloof." Two boreholes on 
the Turf Club are down 5,203 and 5,083 feet respectively. 

[For a summary of recent investigations into the 
deflection of boreholes see page 236] . 

Census of the Transvaal. — On the night of April 1 7, 
1904, a census of the Transvaal was taken, being the 
second in the history of the country. The former, which 
was confined to the white population, took place in 1890, 
and showed a total of 119,128 persons. Last year's figures 
(preliminary report) give the following results for the 
Transvaal and Swazieland : — Whites, 300,225 ; Aboriginal 
Races, 1,030,029; Other Coloured Races, 23,946; Total,. 

The following table shows the total population, area 
and density of the chief gold-mining centres : — 

District. Population. Area Sq. Miles. Number to Sq» 


Barberton ... 27,727 4,463 6*213 

Heidelberg ... 27,901 2,410 ii*577 

Ljdenburg ... 104,490 10,468 9*982 

Witwatersrand 272,506 1^653 164-856 



Cyanide Patent. — In November 1S96, at the instance 
of the Piesident of the Chamber of Mines the patents for 
the cyanide treatment held by the African Gold Recovery 
Company were cancelled by decision of the High Court of 
the late South African Republic. The Company applied 
to the Supreme Court in 1902 to have the case re-opwned. 
On its application being struck off, the matter was carried 
to the Privy Council ; the appeal was dismissed with costs 
in 1904. This decision finally disposed of a matter which 
seriously concerned the whole gold mining industry. 


Deep Levels. — The greatest depth at which mining 
operations are being carried on is at present 2,500 feet at 
the Robinson Deep. The reef at this depth has all the 
normal characteristics observed in outcrop mines. The 
ultimate depth to which mining will be conducted on these 
fields is dependent on the grade of ore met with and the 
working costs, the latter being influenced by labour and. 
supply conditions. 


Dividends, — Seventy-one companies on the Witwaters- 
rand, representing ;^23, 500,000 of capital (issued), have 
paid in a period of eighteen years, dividends amounting to- 
;^28,33 1,906. This is an average annual dividend of less 
than 7 per cent, for each company. By the end of June, 
1905, the total dividends paid amounted to ^"30,000,000. 

Distribution of White Employees, Dec 31, 1904. 

On Surface. Underground. Total. Wages paid for Year. 

Skilled 7,673 5,462 13,135 A,i59»302 

Unskilled 313 725 1,038 177,954 

Totals, 7,986 6,187 14,173 ^,337,256 

Distribution of C 

oloured Employees, Dec. 31, 1904* 



Natives ... 77,014 
Cape Boys 1,188 
Indians ... 1,025 
Chinese ... 20,396 

Surface. Underground. Total. for Year. 

20,945 48,515 69,460 ;^i,962,99a 

114 776 890 93,870 

786 182 968 46,143 

4,230 14,231 18,461 55,36s 

Totals, 99,623 26,075 63,704 89,779 ; ^2,i58,37i 

Extraction of Gold, — Up to the time of the discovery of 
the Witwatersrand deposits, no auriferous conglomerates 
had been worked on a large industtial basis in any part of 
the world. At first, the amount of gold extracted by the 
amalgamation process did not exceed 50 or 60 per cent. 
Later on, concentration and chlorination of concentrates 
improved matters, but it was not until the chemical treat- 
ment of all the sands and slimes by the cyanide process 
was introduced that satisfactory results in this direction 
were attained. To-day, on all well-equipped mines, 90 per 
cent, of the gold is extracted. The introduction of tube 
mills, it is anticipated, will increase the amount of gold won 
to 93 or 95 per cent. 

Gold Law. — In 1903 the Government introduced a 

draft revised Gold Law, which was read a second time by 

the Legislative Council and tetetxedVo ^S^l^ct Committee^ 


This Committee presented its report on July 13, 1904, 
annexing thereto an amended draft law. The majority of 
the members favoured the owner's rights on proclamation 
being consolidated into a mynpacht of one-fifth of the 
extent of his farm, while a minority held that one sixth 
was sufficient. The Government intends to hold the Bill 
over until an elected Assembly is in session. 

Miners^ Phthisis, — Prizes were offered by the Chamber 
of Mines for the three best practical suggestions and devices 
for obviating or minimising the occurrence of this disease. 
There were 229 competitors. The award was made in 
April 1904, the first prize of ;£5oo and gold medal being 
given to T. J. Britten's Atomiser, the second prize of ;^250 
to the Leyner Water Drill ; the third prize was not 
awarded. The judges considered that all devices, except 
the Water Drill and Atomiser were inapplicable. No 
absolutely practicable device was submitted, but Mr. 
Britten's Atomiser constituted the best practical sug- 
gestion, while the Leyner Drill embodied the ideal prin- 
ciple. In the opinion of the judges the best means of 
combating the disease would be the use in drilling of a 
perfect Water Drill, together with the use of an Atomiser 
for allaying dust and gases during blasting and shovelling. 

N'ltive Deposit and Remittance Agency, — An Agency, 
under the control of the Native Affairs Department, has 
been established in the Transvaal for the purpose of 
remitting native moneys to any place in British South 
Africa. All remittances are forwarded daily. A fee of 
two shillings and sixpence is payable on every remittance 
irrespective of amount. Money is also received for the 
purpose of safe keeping ; any amount may be deposited, 
and no charge is made for keeping the money till called for. 

The Profits Tax, — The Profits Tax Proclamation of 
June 1902, imposed a tax of 10 per cent, on the annual 
net produce obtained from the working of gold-bearing 
properties. This net produce is ascertained by deducting 
from the value of the gold produced the cost of production 
and such sums as might be allowed in respect of exhaustion 
of capital, as defined in the Proclamation itselC. \Xv%^^^ 
proposed to exempt froni pay meal oi V\vek'^xQfe\.^"^'a-'*-'^^=^^*^^^ 


which are worked by their owners and yield less than 
/"i,ooo per annum. 

Stamps, — On the Witwatersrand area there were 
8,200 stamps of an average weight of 1,140 lbs. erected at 
May, 31, 1905. In outside districts there were on Decem- 
ber 31, 1904, 1,211 stamps erected, of an average weight 
of 825 lbs. For the month of May 1905, 6,542 stamps 
were being dropped on the Witwatersrand ; their average 
duty was 5*03 tons per stamp per diem. 

Shaft Sinking, — The deepest shaft on the Rand is the 
Catlin Shaft on the Jupiter Mine, which on June 15, 1905, 
had reached a depth of 4,010 feet. The Howard Shaft on 
the Simmer and Jack West had been sunk 3,687 feet on 
the same date. 

Stores. — The total value of stores consumed on the 
gold mines of the Transvaal during 1904 amounted to 
2'5»733»54i. the largest items being:— Coal, ;^87o,372 ; 
machinery and machine tools, £']6'],oi^ ; explosives, 
;^704,748 ; timber, ;^400,84o ; native food, etc., ;^38o,33i ; 
cyanide, ;^235,866 ; pipes, ;^205,447; candles, ;^i35,i 14. 

Underground Temperatures. — Experiments conducted 
by Mr. H. F. Marriott, of Messrs. Eckstein's engineering 
staff, have proved that the increase in temperature amounts 
to I degree Fahrenheit for every 208 feet of depth, or 48 
degrees Fahr. per 100 feet in depth. 
Mean earth temperature at 1,000 ft. deep = 68'75 Fahr. 

2,000 „ „ = 73-55 • „ 
3,000 „ „ = 78-35 
4,000 „ ,, =83-15 

These earth temperatures are considerably modified in 
the mines by the cooling effect of the natural ventilation. 

Deflection of Boreholes. — The deeper levels of the 
Witwatersrand Main Reef formation have been widely 
prospected by boreholes sunk by diamond drills, situated at 
varying distances from the outcrop. 

As instances, the deeper levels of the central portion 
of the Witwatersrand have been proved by seven boreholes 
to the distance of over 6,000 feet from the outcrop. The 
Eastern Extension of the Main Reef series beyond the 
continuous mining area has been pirospected by no less than 


100 boreholes, measuring in the aggregate 160,000 feet 
drilled at a total cost of over ^"380,000, apart from all 
administrative charges. 

Until the last few years the sections obtained from the 
strata brought up by the drills have been accepted as 
representative of the formation situated vertically below the 
mouth of the boreholes, which have, with a few isolated 
exceptions, been started in a vertical direction. 

In the year 1899, two boreholes were located in a 
central position on the Central Rand, on the Property of 
the Johannesburg Turf Club. These constituted the 
deepest prospecting venture hitherto undertaken and the 
results were watched with great interest. 

The holes were situated some 9,000 feet from the out- 
crop and the drills were set up to bore vertically downwards. 
Work had to be stopped during the war, but drilling was 
continued in 1901, when the holes were completed. The 
reefs were struck in the two holes at 4,802 feet and 4,742 
feet respectively. 

The strata sections obtained showed a regular dip of 
27^ in conformity with surface indications and calculations 
based on information afforded by the outcrop mines and the 
two rows of deep level mines in the vicinity. 

In order to correct any possible difference due to bore- 
hole deflection, Mr. H. F. Marriott, of Messrs. Eckstein's 
engineering staff, had during the period of cessation of 
operations, designed instruments capable of making complete 
survey of the course of each hole. Preparations were also 
made by the same engineer to continue the earth tempera- 
ture experiments which had been carried out through the 

Preliminary tests with a hydrofluoric acid tube gave 
such startling readings of deflection at depth, that the 
complete surveys with the special instrument made for that 
purpose were proceeded with as rapidly as possible. By 
this instrument the lower depths of each hole were proved 
to have deviated over 60^ from the vertical, and the previous- 
ly presumed depths of reef, viz. : — 4,802 feet and 4,742 feet 
in the two holes were corrected to 3,910 feet and 3,745 feet 
respectively. The positions at which the Main Reef series 


was intersected were located as 2,185 ^iiid 2,175 ^®6t 
horizontally from the points at which the boreholes were 
started. The holes, when mapped out, were proved to have 
taken a course through the regular formation which gave 
dip readings of strata and depth records practically identical 
with those which would have been obtained had they con- 
tinued in an absolutely vertical direction. 

Eesults obtained by the instruments used in this work 
marked the commencement of a new era in borehole sur- 
veying. Previous methods involving the use of gelatine or 
clockwork action had many sources of error which were now 
eliminated. The principle of the new departure is that 
the instruments can be controlled from the surface by 
means of electricity while they are in the borehole in the 
position required to be surveyed. 

The instruments are of two kinds. 

One variety works on the principle of liquifying a solid 
by means of a heating coil, and then allowing it to cool by 
natural means. The recording instrument is thus freed 
while in position and is locked again absolutely without any 
external movement taking place. 

The other design gives the readings at the surface by- 
means of a delicate galvanometer simultaneously with the 
records being taken by the instrument in position in the 
hole ; the degrees of inclination being registered by different 
resistances introduced into the circuit by a switch acted on 
by a series of plumb bobs. The instruments are connected 
with the surface by means of a strong cable which serves the 
double purpose of carrying the current and the instruments, 
and by its rigidity enabling readings to be taken at greater 
depths than is possible when the instruments are lowered by 
gravity only. 

The general evidence afforded by the surveys made 
with these instruments is to the effect that in the regular 
Witwatersrand strata a borehole, sunk by means of a 
diamond drill, tends to assume at depth a final position 
perpendicular to the plane of the strata. 

This systematic deflection of boreholes on the Wit- 

H^atersrand Gold-fields in no way decreases their value 

as an adequate means oi deep level prospecting. But now 


that the making of a reliable survey in every case is 
generally accepted as a necessity, the information afforded 
by the cores will in future be more determinative of the 
actual geological conditions obtaining throughout the 
sections than has hitherto been the case. 

IX. — ^The Coal Industry. 

The coal mining industry of the Transvaal commenced 
with the opening of the Rand Goldfields. Before the dis- 
covery of the value of the banket beds, coal was only 
worked by the inhabitants for the very few industrial establish- 
ments situated near the outcropping seams, generally at 
the side of a river or on the side of a hill, and the winning 
was usually done by quarrying. 

In the early eighties, Messrs. Lewis & Marks opened 
up coal beds at Vereeniging on the Vaal River, and it was 
proposed to send the coal won down the Vaal River to 
Kimberley, a scheme never carried out. 

With the development of the Rand, it became evident 
that the supply of fuel was likely to prove a serious 
problem ; labour was plentiful, money was available, but 
wood, the first fuel used in Johannesburg, was expensive, 
and the local supply available was exceedingly limited. 
At this time the Vereeniging coal was only opened in a 
very small way, and the supply obtainable here was 
insufficient for local requirements. 

The Wilge River and Oliphants River coal beds in 
the Middelburg district were quickly drawn upon, as the 
seams were exposed ready for mining and the supply avail- 
able was ample, but the cost of transport was very great 
and the price paid by the gold mines in some instances 
reached £^ per ton. 

In December, 1887, prospectors searching for gold on 
the Government ground Vogelfontein at Boksburg struck 
a seam of coal, and directly afterwards coal was found at 
Brakpan and Springs in shafts being put down for gold. 
From that time onwards there has been no doubt as to 
fuel being obtainable for all purposes m \)[i^ Tx^x«N'as^.> ^xA. 



at such a price that the low cost of fuel would be one of 
the favourable factors id the development of our resources. 
The coal seams are generally of considerable thickness, 
and in the early days a working thickness of 14 to 18 feet 
was quite common. They often outcrop in such a position 
that they can be worked by means of adits, but generally 
they lie at comparatively shallow depth, from 65 feet to 
300 feet. In some instances workable seams He at depths 
up to 650 feet. 


Transvaal coal seams almost invariably contain 
alternating layers of anthracitic and semibituminous coals 
with layers of very interior coal or shale ; the floor and roof 
are generally shale, but in some cases the roof is sandstone. 
The coal carries a high percentage of ash ; the analyses 
annexed are from typical samples. 

Coal occurs in detached areas over the high veld ; 

these areas vary much in size and in the character of the 

coal. The seams usually lie almost horizontal or at only 

a slight angle, but as a rule the faults and rolls do not 

seriously impede the winning oHbft coai- 


Water is rarely met with in any quantity in the coal 
mines. Fire damp is of very rare occurrence and never 
in any quantity. 

In opening up a colliery the first operation is to sink 
and connect a main shaft and an air shaft. Main drives 
are then carried out parallel in each direction, starting 
from the principal shaft. From these main drives 
secondary drives are carried, off which " bords " or " rooms," 
corresponding to the stopes in a gold mine, are run, and 
from such ** bords " or " rooms '* the principal quantity of 
coal is obtained. The coal may be undercut at the floor of 
the seam by natives using picks, generally at about the 
middle, the portion of the seam left standing being blasted 
dcwn. In some cases the whole removal is done by blast- 
ing, as in a rock heading. 

The average thickness of coal being worked may be 
set down at lo feet. A fair scale of widths of workings is : 
— Main drives, 15 feet; secondary drives, 18 feet, and 
bords or rooms, 21 feet; pillars alongside drives, 21 feet 
wide, and inside pillars, 13 feet to 15 ifeet square. These 
inside pillars are often robbed until they fail to support the 
roof. The falling in of the whole overburden may lead 
to spontaneous combustion, with the result that a section of 
the colliery is set on fire. 

Collieries are worked for the most part by hand labour; 
in a few mines only have mechanical coal cutters been 
installed. Nearly all have an underground track of 18 inch 
gauge and use trucks of from 20 to 30 cubic feet capacity. 

At the principal mines two trucks are raised in each 
cage and cages are invariably single deckers. 

Practically all the coal broken in the mine is raised to 
the surface, underground selection being impracticable. For 
underground haulage, the endless rope system is usually 

The surface equipment for handling the coal raised in 
nearly every case follows broadly the same lines. 

Loaded trucks raised from the shaft pass on to revolv- 
ing tippers mechanically operated ; coal falls on to fixed or 
shaking screens ; the large coal passes on to endless belts, 
either plate or bar type, where it is ha.wd-^v:kfc^^ "a^ "^^ 


shale and inferior coal being removed. From there the 
clean coal passes to the railway waggons, or to bins, from 
which it may be filled into sacks. 

The coal passing through the first screen (under 
tippler) now goes through revolving screens or trommels 
to make nuts coal from i" down to f" size, and pea 
coal from |" to f " size, and slack or dross, which is usually 
sent to the waste heap or used on the colliery to fire the 
boilers. About 25 % of the output is sorted and screened 
out as waste, leaving 75% merchantable coal. This is 
graded from 75 % to 80 % large coal, the balance being nuts 
coal and pea coal. 

The coal produced is chiefly used for steaming pur- 
poses, but a fair quantity is used for smithy purposes and 
also for the production of illuminating gas. A portion of 
Johannesburg is supplied with gas from Transvaal coal. 

The principal market for Transvaal coal is furnished 
by the mines on the Rand ; next come the Government 
Railways, industrial concerns and domestic trade. 

The output for the last four years was as follows : — 

. - ,, Total Coal Sold. Total Value. 

M^"^^- Tons. I 

Statistical Year 1901-1902 ... 1,134,871 469,769 

Statistical Year 1902- 1903 ... 1,969,089 782,906 

Statistical Year 1903 -1904 ... 2,370,465 895,931 

Statistical Year 1904- 1905 ... 2,513,824 874,856 

Demand for coal is steadily increasing ; the capacity for 
producing is, however, increasing more rapidly, and to-day 
there are at least 14 collieries equipped and developed for 
an output of 1,000 tons of coal per day, some being equal 
to an output of 1,600 to 2,000 tons per day. 

The nearest collieries to Johannesburg are the Brak- 
pan and Apex at Brakpan Station, about ij hours from 
Johannesburg. This is the area from which most of the 
coal used on the Rand in the early days was obtained. 

A few miles further east the Springs coal area is 
reached ; here the coal measures rest upon dolomite, the 
area is small and much broken by dykes, and great 
variation in thickness and quality occur within very narrow 


limits. At one colliery workings can be seen where the 
coal was worked a thickness of over 30 feet. 

To the eastwards of the Springs area large coal-beds 
are found, but the chief deposits in the Transvaal are on 
the Wilge and Oliphants Rivers and in the district between 
these streams. 

Near Balmoral, six hours by rail from Johannesburg, 
several collieries are working by adits and producing good 

At Brugspruit and Witbank, 6J hours by rail from 
Johannesburg, the largest collieries in the Transvaal will be 
found. These collieries supply the greater portion of the 
coal used by the railways ; large quantities are sent to the 
gold mines, while increasing amounts are shipped annually 
at Delagoa Bay. 

Further east, at Belfast, are more collieries supplying 
coal to the mines and railways, and to vessels at Delagoa 

To the south of Johannesburg, two hours by rail from 
Johannesburg, are the Vereeniging collieries, supplying the 
Cape, Orange River and Transvaal railways, and gold mines 
on the Rand. 

The geological conditions obtaining here are of the 
greatest interest. (See at end of the next chapter.) 

On the Transvaal -Natal Railway, near Balfour, 3^ 
hours by rail from Johannesburg, is the South Rand Coal- 
field, now being opened out. 

The origin of these coal-fields deserves more attention 
and consideration than has, so far, been given to the 
question. We ha'e local deposits of coal having the same 
general characteristics, but varying very much in detail. 

The coals contain a high percentage of ash, ihey are 
low in fixed carbon, nearly every seam is made up of 
alternative layers, of anthracitic and semi-bituminous coals 
with bands of very inferior coal or shale. Generally, the 
lower seam is best from a commercial point of view, and 
the bottom section of this seam carries the best coal, the 
upper portion of the seam carrying very inferior coal. 

In many cases a thin seam of coal occurs well above 
the main seam, and this thin seam carries a more bitumin- 



ous coal than that in the lower seams. It carries, however, 
much pyrites also, rendering it unfit for steam or house coal. 
Often the change from coal to soft shale is very 
gradual. Id many ways the occurrence of these coal beds 
more nearly follows the conditions of ordinary sedimentary 
deposition than the accepted theory that the coal beds are 
the remains of primeval forests submerged and changed to 
coal. E. W. 











X.— Geology. 
There are two peculiar features in the geology of the 
Transvaal which it may be as well to mention at once. The. 
first is the total absence of fossils from most of the stratified 
rocks occurring in the country. Indeed, it is only in the 
coal measures that any extensive series of fossils has been 
found. There is also a record of certain obscure remains 
having been found by Professor Cohen in the dolomite be- 
tween Klerksdorp and Potchefetroom, but although the 
dolomite is very extensively developed in the Transvaal, 


no Other searcher has up to the present time found fossils 
in it. These being the facts, it will readily be understood 
how extremely difficult correlation becomes, not only 
correlation of Transvaal formations with those of foreign 
countries, but correlation with the formation of Cape Colony 
and Natal, and also correlation even within the boundaries- 
of the Transvaal itself. The absence of fossils is to some 
slight extent compensated for by the remarkable persistence- 
of petrographical features, but such a fact supplies only an 
imperfect and at times even dangerous substitute for fossils- 
in the matter of correlation. Add to this feature that the 
systematic study of geology in the Transvaal has only been 
carried on for a few years, and it will easily be understood 
that even the main sub-divisions of our rocks have not as 
yet been finally agreed upon, and that local geologists are 
always in that state of mind which is prepared to hear of a 
new formation having been discovered, or a radical alteration 
in classification suggested. 

The second feature in Transvaal geology is that with 
the exception of recent superficial deposits, no formation is^ 
known younger than the coal measures, which Mr. Seward 
has determined to be of Permo-Carboniferous age. It will 
be seen, therefore, that the Transvaal has not been sub- 
merged for an immense period of time, and while scores of 
thousands of feet of strata were being laid down in some 
other parts of the world, the Transvaal was continuously a 
land surface — subjected to sub-aerial denudations through 
unimaginable periods of time. 

The rocks of the Transvaal may be sub-divided in 
descending order as follows : — 
Karroo J Ecca. 

System. — ( Dwyka Conglomerate (Unconformity). 

'^Waterberg Sandstone (Unconformity). 

Red Granite. 

Pretoria Series. 

Dolomite Series. 
^ Black Reef Series (Unconformity). 
Ventersdorp Vaal River System (Unconformity). 
WiTWATERSRAND Series (Probable Unconformity). 
Swaziland Series (With Intrusive Granite). 

System. — 


At one time the whole of the rocks below the Black 
Reef Series were classed together in one system, which has 
been called by some geologists the South African Primary 
System and by others the Archaean System. The tendency 
now is to make two systems, Molengraaff suggesting that 
the name Vaal River System should be given to the 
Ventersdorp Series, and that the name Rand System be 
given to the rocks below this Series. Hatch, on the other 
hand, suggests that the division be made below the Wit- 
watersrand Series, and that the name Heidelberg System 
be given to the Ventersdorp Series and Witwatersrand 
Series combined, and that *' Archaean System ' be retained 
to designate the Swaziland Series with intrusive granite. 

No exact correlation of Transvaal formations with 
those of Cape Colony and Natal below the Karroo System 
has been made out as yet. It is generally considered that 
the Cape System is more or less equivalent to the Trans- 
vaal System, and, indeed, the latter system was at one 
time known as the Cape System ; but, as the correlation 
was lacking proof, the present name is evidently more 

Geology of the Rand Goldfields. 

General Section of Strata. — Between Johannesburg and 
Pretoria there lies a large granite boss, and if from the 
southern limit of this boss — that is, from a point a little 
over two miles north of Johannesburg Market Square — a 
section southward be described, a good idea of the geological 
structure of the Rand should be gained. The granite is of 
Archaean age, and is usually known as the " old " or " grey ** 
rgranite, to distinguish it from the newer red granite of the 
Bushveld. The Swaziland Series is missing in this locality, 
and the Witwatersrand beds lie directly upon the granite. 
The Witwatersrand Series is sometimes divided into an 
upper and a lower division. The distinction is convenient 
on the Rand, but there is no unconformity, and on going 
further afield, the division cannot be very clearly defined. 

The Lower Witv^^atersrand Division consists of alter- 
nating beds of quartzite and slate dipping steeply to the 
south. The slates are mostly red or purple and the older 


ones contain a considerable amount of oxide of iron, and are 
magnetic. The most notable bed is the " Hospital Hill 
Slate." It lies a mile to the north of the Market Square, 
and helps to form the prominent ridge which runs east and 
west. It is a hard slate formed of parallel bands of quartz, 
jasper, specul&r iron, and magnetite. Owing to its peculiar 
appearance it is sometimes called " Calico Rock." Often 
this rock is strangely contorted. There are occasionally 
beds of conglomerate in the Lower Wit waters rand beds, 


but they are not usually very persistent, nor have they so 
far been proved to carry moie than small quantities of gold. 
The division ends about a third of a mile south of the 
Market Square. 

The Upper Witwatersrand Division commences in 
ascending order with the Main Reef Series of conglomerate 
beds, which are the chief gold carriers of the district, and 
which will be described in detail later. South of this there 
are two other series of conglomerate beds— the Bird Reef 
Series some half-mile away, and the Kimbertey Reef Series 


another half-mile south. Though both these series carry a 
little gold, they are not of any commercial importance. 
Between the conglomerates, beds of sandstone and quartzite 
•chiefly occur. Although there is some slate, it is not so 
much in evidence as in the Lower Witwatersrand Division. 

Some distance south of the Kimberley Reef Series 
there is a great thickness of conglomerate beds with 
quartzite, known as the Elsburg Series. This has often 
been placed with the Witwatersrand beds, but recently 
considerable doubt as to its conformity with the beds 
below it has been expressed. Hatch and Corstorphine 
class it provisionally with the Klipriversberg Amygdaloid, 
which begins nearly five miles south of Johannesburg ; the 
two together representing the Ventersdorp Series in the 
<listrict. Overlying the amygdaloidal diabase the Black 
Reef Series occurs. The Black Reef itself is a conglomerate 
bed at the bottom of the series. It is usually only a foot or 
two in thickness, and, though it carries gold, its value is so 
irregular, that it has not been worked to any great extent. 
By travelling still further to the south, the Dolomite Series 
and the Pretoria Series are met with in due sequence, but 
there is no Waterberg Sandstone, as far as is known at 
present. Our section, however, has already led us suffi- 
ciently far away from the locality we are now especially 
interested in, and so we will return to the Rand. 

The Main Reef Series consists usually of three 
principal reefs ; the Main Reet itself, which is the most 
northern of the three, the Main Reef Leader, and the South 
Reef. There is another reef to the north and several 
leaders further to the south, but these have no commercial 
importance. Both the Main Reef and the South Reef 
usually consist of several beds of conglomerate, or " Banket," 
as it is called in South Africa ; " Banket '* being the Dutch 
name for almond rock and also for conglomerate which is 
supposed in some degree to resemble the sweetmeat. The 
individual beds of banket are spoken of as ** Leaders." 

The Main Reef in the Central Rand is often as much 
as 15 or 20 feet thick, but it is frequently poor in gold and 
•can only be worked here and there. The Main Reef Leader 
lies just to the south of the Main Reef, sometimes a foot or 


two away and at other times 5 or 6 feet away. It is from 
a foot to 3 feet thick, and is much more uniformly rich in 
gold than the Main Reef, being generally worth working. 
The South Reef in the Central Rand lies some 80 feet 
south of the Main Reef Leader, and usually consists of two- 
or three comparatively thin leaders some two or three 
feet apart. These leaders may be as much as two feet 
thick, but generally they are less, and sometimes one or 
other of them is represented by a single line of .pebbles. 
The leaders do not all carry the gold values : as a rule one,, 
frequently the lowest is much richer than the others. On 
the whole the South Reef has perhaps proved the richest, 
and most consistent gold carrier on the Rand, for, though 
thin, it often averages a couple of ounces over a workable 
width for considerable lengths and assays of hundreds of 
ounces to the ton are not unknown. 

The Main Reef Series near Johannesburg dips very 
steeply south near the outcrop, though it flattens in depths 
Thus near the surface at the Ferreira the dip is over 80^,. 
whilst at the Robinson Deep the dip is about 30^. At the 
Simmer and Jack Mine conditions are exceptional owing 
to a large dyke, and near the outcrop the reef is almost flat. 
However at some depth it attains a dip of between 30^ 
and 40^. 

Faults and diabase dykes frequently disturb the reefs. 
Occasionally they are so numerous in a particular property 
as to interfere seriously with mining operations. Throws 
of as much as 600 feet measured horizontally are known^ 
though usually they are of less magnitude. The dykes are 
not always accompanied by faulting, neither are the faults 
always accompanied by dykes. Indeed, the faults are- 
much more numerous than the dykes. 

Lateral 'Extensions of Reefs, — Travelling westwards- 
from Johannesburg, we notice that the South Reef gets- 
further away from the Main Reef Leader till it attains a 
distance of about 140 feet. The Main Reef gets thinner^ 
but, as before, it is irregular in value, and is only worked in 
places. The other two reefs are also less uniformly rich. 
At Roodepoort, some 13 miles west of Johannesburg, a 
richer area occurs, and some two miles beyond this the 




reefs are cut off by what is known as the Witpoortje break. 
The nature of this break is even yet not thoroughly under- 
stood, and the csrrelation of the payable reefs, which have 
been found beyond it by going north, with the Main Reef 
Series, is still not altc^ether clear. Two reefs beyond the 
breaJc are being worked- — namely, the Botha Reef and the 
Battery Reef. They are some 4,000 feet apart, and perhaps 
the most generally accepted theory is that the Botha Reef 
is equivalent to the Main Reef, whilst the Battery Reef 



really belongs to the Kimberley Series. Just beyond 
Krugersdorp the reefs make a sharp bend to the south and 
dip east. On this section the Randfontein Mines occur. 
Further south still the strata is much broken, but the reefs 
apparently take a bend to the south-west and run under the 
Black Reef Series and Dolomite Series, where they have 
been followed to some small extent by boreholes. Eighty 
miles farther to the S.W. reefs are known to exiat ; but 
their correlation with the Rand tteSs \ia& no^ ■^«t. been proved. 


Starting again from Johannesburg and going eastwards 
we find that the South Reef approaches nearer and nearer 
to the Main Reef Leader, till by the time the Simmer and 
Jack Mine is reached, the three reefs may almost be looked 
upon as forming one reef series, though the three reefs are 
still distinguished for some distance further. On the 
Witwatersrand Mine there is a triplication of the reef 
series caused by longitudinal faulting, and beyond this — on 
the mines of the East Rand Proprietary Group — the reef 
series is duplicated for a long distance by a longitudinal 
dyke. Beyond these mines the Boksburg break (i8 miles 
east of Johannesburg) is met with. The nature of this 
break has now been demonstrated by means of boring. It 
is caused by an anticline almost at right angles to the 
strike, accompanied by faulting. The beds having been 
subsequently planed off by denudation, the effect is that 
the outcrop turns to the south and afterwards back to the 
north again. In the neighbourhood of Boksburg, the 
outcrop runs under the coal measures, though beyond on 
the Kleinfontein Mine, Van Ryn, and on Klipfontein it 
comes out again. Beyond this, the outcrop is again 
covered by newer formations, though it han been fairly 
accurately located by means of boreholes. It turns to the 
south, and is probably identical with the Nigel Reef, thought 
this correlation is not universally acknowledged. In the 
Far East Rand, the reef series seems to be more irregular 
than in the Central Section. Sometimes there is quite a 
thick series with numerous leaders ; at other times the reef 
is apparently very thin ; but as yet comparatively little 
mining has been done beyond the Boksburg break. 

The reduction in the angle of dip in the Central Rand 
as depth is attained, and the turning of the outcrops of the 
reefs southwards both east and west has given rise to the 
theory that there exists a basin shaped occurrence, and that 
a southern limb corresponding to the Rand will be found 
in the Orange River Colony. It is true that at Vredefort, 
to the south-west of Johannesburg, there is a granite boss, 
and that the sequence of strata there is similar to the 
Rand, but it is not known as yet to what extent the ba&ic^ 
theory is justified. 



Charactet of Banket. — The pebbles of the reefs consist 
mostly of quartz, though occasionally quart zite and chert 
pebbles occur, and more rarely slaie pebbles. They are 
-ovoid in form, well rounded, and with regard to size the 
-average would perhaps be a little less than an inch in 
<liameter. The size is, however, variable, pebbles as large 
as six inches in diameter being occasionally found, whilst 
sometimes the pebbles are as small as peas. The 
interspaces are filled with quartz grains, and the whole 


<;onsolidated intoa hard rock by a, silicious cement. There 
is always a certain amount of sericite and talc in scales 
-and fibres which often gives the conglomerate a somewhat 
greasy feel. Iron pyrites is also invariably present. It 
occurs in irregular fragments, in crystallized forms and 
also in rounded concretionary forms ; spherical pellets 
being not infrequent in some localities. These rounded 
foims v/ere at one time supposed to be watsrworn, but the 
pyrites is quite clean except in the oxidised zone of the reef, 
^ad as the pellets frequentV^ esii\ti\li eAViw a, radial or 


concentric structure it is more probable that they are 

Gold is very rarely visible in hand specimens of the 
conglomerate, though it can be readily seen in microscopic 
sections of rich specimens. It occurs in minute angular 
fragments, very usually around the periphery of the 
particles of pyrites, or in their neighbourhood, though 
never inside them. It is sometimes more or less 
crystallized in form. With regard to its origin, though 
some still cling to the probability of its being detrital — that 
is, derived from some older deposit — the more general 
opinion nowadays is that it has been brought to its present 
lodgings in solution by subsequent infiltration. 

Besides those already mentioned, other minerals occur 
in the conglomerate ; thus chlorite and muscovite are fre- 
quent, whilst rutile and zircon are also found. In certain 
localities a black carbonaceous mineral occurs, which at 
times seems to have an enriching effect on the reef. In 
one locality at Klerksdorp small green diamonds were 
found, and minute quantities of iridium are obtained from 
the Rietfontein Reef. 

Considering the class of rock, a remarkable character 
of the conglomerates is their persistence. This per- 
sistence must not, however, be misunderstood. The 
leaders themselves are net peculiarly persistent, as they 
generally vary greatly in thickness, often within a few feet, 
and they die away and make again. It is really the zone 
of leaders which is persistent. The gold contents also vary 
very greatly in detail, but on the average they show 
remarkable uniformity, so that in particular localities it is 
often possible to predict the value of a property before it 
has been touched. This average uniformity is also illus- 
trated by the fact that, the milling value of the ore at 
certain mines has only varied within narrow limits over a 
number of years. 

Geology of the Coal Fields. 

Although coal in the Transvaal occurs in the newest 
stratified formation in the Colony and tVv^ %c\^ v^ \a\ixw^ xs^ 


rocks of much more remote age, yet, geographically, the 
two occur quite close together. This fact has had a most 
important bearing on the commercial prosperity of the 
Rand. In places the coal measures overlie the Witwaters- 
rand Series, and bore holes pass through coal seams near 
the surface and gold bearing conglomerates in depth. 

The coal measures in the Transvaal belong to the 
Karroo System, as do those of Cape Colony, only whilst 
in Cape Colony coal is worked near the top of the System 
our coal occurs near the bottom of the System. Indeed, 
it is not yet proved that we have any Upper Karroo forma- 
tion at all in the Transvaal, though MolengraafF considers 
the so-called Highveld Series of the south-eastern part of 
the Colony to be probably of that age. 

The Karroo System occupies an area which is roughly 
1 20 miles square in the south-eastern corner of the Trans- 
vaal, but besides this continuous area there are numerous 
detached patches — some of considerable area — to the north- 
west and west, as at the South Rand Coalfield, Vereeni- 
ging, Syferfontein and other localities. The nearest coal 
to Johannesburg is at Boksburg, where coal was worked in 
early days. Now, however, the nearest localities where 
coal is being worked are Brakpan and Springs. 

At the base of the Karroo System is found the Dwyka 
Conglomerate as in Cape Colony. This conglomerate is 
of glacial origin and is very widely distributed. It is 
exactly similar in character and origin to the boulder clay 
of the northern hemisphere, only the fine grained portions 
have been altered and indurated. The boulders are not 
infrequently striated. Above it occur the Ecca beds con- 
sisting of shales, sandstones and grits. Whilst the Dwyka 
varies from a few feet up to 60 feet and even more in 
thickness, the beds above it increase from about 100 feet 
in thickness in the western part of the area to many 
hundreds of feet in the eastern part. 

The coal seams occur in the western part of the area 

directly upon the Dwyka Conglomerate. Indeed, at 

Vereeniging, Dwyka Conglomerate occurs not only under 

the coal but over it as well. In the eastern part of the 

^inaa the coal is separated from t\ie D7i^\8aw Coaglomerate 


by 600 to 1,000 feet of sandstones and. shales. At 
Vereeniging, above the coal seams, numerous plant remains 
have been found in a fine grained sandstone. These were 
determined by Mr. Seward to belong to various species of 
Ghssopteris and Gangamopteris ; Sigillaria also occurs and 
other genera. He considered that the association of species 
pointed to a Per mi- Carboniferous age. 

The thickness of the coal seams varies, but the seams 
being worked are sometimes as much as 20 feet thick, 
without shale partings. At other times shale partings 
occur. The coal nearest to Johannesburg is not of very 
good quality, that worked in the Middelburg district being 
better, though still far short of good English coal. The 
following may be taken as typical analyses : — 

Springs Coal. 

Middelburg Coal 


0-15 % 

0-57 % 

Volatile Matter ... 

24-86 % 

14-10 % 

Fixed Carbon 

64-25 % 

63-00 % 

Ash ... 

10-67 % 

22-00 % 


0-07 % 
I GO-GO % 

99-67 % 

Coke ... ... 74*97 % 

There is generally an excellent roof to the coal, and it 
can be worked cheaply. 

There is for the most part no fireclay under the seams 
of coal, and it cannot be considered that the vegetable 
matter of which the coal was formed grew in situ. Indeed, 
there is little doubt but that the coal resulted from accumu- 
lations of drift wood. This probably accounts in part for 
the irregular character of .the coal seams. The seams for 
the most part lie horizontally and at shallow depths. They 
have been comparatively little disturbed by faulting, though 
diabase dykes are of fairly frequent occurrence. 

It may be added that the coal measures of the Colony 
have only just been touched as yet. Without doubt they 
contain a reserve of fuel which will last for a very Icn^ 
period of time. ^% Qj.\-.* 



Government Mining Returns. 




Value, £ 

Statistical Year, i 




Statistical Year, i 




Statistical Year, i 




Statistical Year, i 




1904. July 


















1905. — Januar^ji 







400,210- J 65 















Value, £ 

Statistical Year, i 




Statistical Year, i 




Statistical Year, i 




1904-— July 

• • • 




• • • 




• • • 




• • • 




• • • 




• • • 



1905. — ^January 

• • • 




• • • 












• • • 




• • • 




The Dynamite Factory, Modderfontein. 

Population — Whites, 600 ; Coloured, 1,200. 

Dynamite has played a very importaot part in both the 
domestic and political economy of the Transvaal since the 
discovery of the Witwatersrand. Before the advent of 
railways it had to be transported very long distances by 
waggon the journey sometimes occupying as long as three 
weeks. Under such circumstances it was not a cheap 
commodity, but neither was anything else in thos 


Before the Modderfontein Factory was built, manu- 
facture of a kind was carried on at Loenfontein, in the 
neighbourhood of Pretoria; but on account of political and 
other circumstances, the late Republican Government 
declared the manufacture a Stale monopoly. They 
appointed an a^ent to deal with the matter, asd as a result 
of the concession the Modderfontein factory was built, and 
actual manufacturing operations commenced towards the 
close of that fateful year i8y6. Although the^ ^^- 


dustry, even at that time, had expanded beyond the wildest 
dreams of the pioneers, much greater developments were 
yet ahead, and, whereas the factory was originally designed 
for an output of 80,000 cases annually, three and a half 
ytars afterwards — /.^., just before the war — it was turning 
out at the rate of 400,000 cases per annum, equivalent to 
10,000 tons — a truly gigantic quantity. Indeed, no other 
factory of its kind in the world carried out the manufac- 
ture of explosives on such a gigantic scale. It now produces 
24,000 cases weekly, each case containing 50 pounds of 

In the early stages of the war the Boer Government, 
in virtue of the concession granted, commandeered the 
factory, and, to all intents and purposes, it acted as one of 
their arsenals till the advent of the British troops. Indeed, 
it is stated that Lord Roberts' guns shelled a train -load of 
ammunition which was leaving the factory as the troops 
entered it. 

The factory remained under military control till the 
advent of the Civil Administration, and for about a year of 
the war period it was the headquarters of the South African 
Constabulary, the hospital attached to the factory being the 
central hospital for the entire force. 

As a result of the Commission presided over by Mr. 
Lyttelton, the original concession was cancelled, and 
following on this, the company was reconstructed, and 
the headquarters removed from Hamburg to London. The 
new company went under the name of the British South 
African Explosives Company, Limited., with Lord Ribbles- 
dale, the present holder of the office, as its first chairman. 

The factory lies almost due north of Johannesburg 
and is distant from it about 13 miles. In many respects the 
situation is an ideal one — for the manufacture of explosives 
none better could be desired — for, while the dangerous 
operations are all carried on on one side of a high ridge, the 
non-dangerous are carried out on the other, the hill acting 
as a safety screen. Immense quantities of water are re- 
quired for the different processes, and in order to obtain 
and conserve it, three large dams have been built, and the 
sheets of water give a most pleasing effect to the landscape. 


This effect is still further heightened by trees, the old com- 
pany having planted them very largely while the factory 
was under construction. 

Unfortunately, hardly any of the raw materials neces- 
sary for the manufacture of explosives are to be found id 
sufficient quantity in the country, so they have to be im- 
ported. The nitrate of soda necessary for the manufacture 
of nitric acid and for other purposes, comes direct from 


Chili ; the sulphur for the manufecture of sulphuric acid, 
from Sicily ; and the glycerine for the manufacture of nitro- 
glycerine from all corners of Europe. 

The acid works, in which the acids already referred to 
are made, are of great extent, and the plant as a whole is 
quite up to the most modern ideas. 

The actual manufacture of the explosives is carried on 
in what are called fectories, of which there are five — each 



one being a complete unit in itself and under the rontrol of 
an experienced superintendent. The acids ready mixed and 
of proper standard are handed over to these foctories. The 
nitro -glycerine is first of all made and purified, and after 
undergoing the various stages of mixing and cartridging 
the final explosive leaves the factory packed and ready for 
issue. The principal departments are naturally those already 
referred to, but subsidiary ones are also carried on, such as 


the making of boxes, cartridge wrappers, ammunition, lead 
pipes, flour, etc. 

The factory employs at present about 350 whites and 
1,000 natives. The white employees are housed on the 
property, and there are two excellent clubs — one for 
officials and the other for the workpeople. Most of the 
whites are British, and at the Factory school there is a daily 
attendance of 100 children. The Company also provides a 
general library for the use of the employees, and does every- 
tbiagin its power to make things pleasant and comfortable. 



There are, naturally, the usual cricket, football and tennis 
clubs, but the volunteering movement has appealed more to 
the community generally, and there are altogether 140 volun- 
teers in the company's service, which is, perhaps, the 
largest proportion of any community in the country. "The 
Casino " is a club for the officials of the company, and 
many pleasant times are obtainable in its recreation rooms. 
The white employees have a club-room of their own. 

On account of the highly technical nature of the work^ 
the staff is much larger than in most other manufactories. 
Of chemists alone there are 11. Some of these are 
constantly engaged in research work, others in routine 
work, and others in supervising manufacturing operations. 
Each manufacturing department has its own testing labor- 
atory, but the central laboratory, where all the research is 
carried out, is filled with all the most modern appliances. 

Visitors to the Dynamite factory will observe the 
perfect cleanliness which is preserved in all the rooms 
where the various processes are carried on. The need for 
this is obvious, for if dirt or grit of any kind came in contact 
with the nitro-glycerine the liability to concussion would be 

Indiarubber shoes are kept at the entrance to each 
department, and one enters the door with a sense of respect 
for power comparable to the reverence that belongs to a 
cathedral or a mosque. 

The danger is small, if proper precautions are taken^ 
but familiarity because of past immunity ought not to be 
indulged. The natives who carry the blended explosive in 
india-rubber vessels from room to room do so with a 
respectful care that is most suggestive; but when the nitro- 
glycerine is mixed with cotton or other ingredients, so as to 
form a workable " dough," it is kneaded, run through a 
small sausage machine and cut into bits about the size of 
a banana with rapidity and freedom. But the workers take 
care not to drop the cartridges. 

W. C. 



There is no established Church in South Africa. The 
English Church is exactly on the same footing, so far as 
the State is concerned, as any other religious body. It is 
a voluntary association ; the members may adopt, as the 
members of any other communion may adopt, rules for 

enforcing discipline within their body which will be binding 
upon those who expressly or by implication have assented 
to them. Accordingly, the English Church in South 
Africa adopted in 1876 certain Articles of Constitution 
which provide a standard of faith and doctrine "according 
as the Church of England has set forth the same." On 
this account the Lambeth Conference of 1897 declared the 
Church of the Province of South Africa to be the only 
body in these parts which is in full»h "vr^ilc^ '^qk- 


Church of England. To give effect to the provisions of 
the Constitution the Provincial Synod has power front 
time to time to make Canons, Rules, Regulations and 
Bye-laws. To enforce discipline, Provincial ,and Diocesan 
Tribunals are provided ; but such tribunals have 00 power 
to enforce their sentences. They must apply for that 
purpose to the Courts established by the Civil Law, and 
such Courts will give effect to their decisions provided that 
Church Tribunals act within the scope of their authority. 


nil 1^ lH^ liBiffc^ Ml 1 


a. MARY'8 parish hall, JOHANNESBURa 

The Church of the Province of South Africa is divided 
into ten Dioceses. The diocese over which the Bishop of 
Pretoria presides is co-extensive with the territorial limits 
of the Transvaal. The Bishop is elected by the Clergy 
and Lay representatives of the diocese, and has four Arch- 
deacons to assist him in the work of supervision. The 
parochial clergy act in concert with their Parochial Coun- 


cils, which are elected annually at the Easter Vestries. 
There are a small number of parochial clergy working in 
the diocese including members of the Railway Mission and 
Army Chaplains. There is one Anglican brotherhood 
represented in the diocese and two Anglican sisterhoods. 
Pretoria has a Church School for boys and another for girls. 
There are similar institutions in Johannesburg. 

Most members of the Church of England who come 
to the Transvaal from the Old Country seem to expect to 
find everything in the way of spiritual ministrations pro- 
vided for them free of cost, as at Home. They forget that 
the Church in England has been in existence for centuries 
whereas the diocese of Pretoria has only existed since 1878. 

There are at present one or more resident clergymen 
at the following 39 places, ministering the white popu- 


lation : — Barberton, Belfast, Belgravia ( 
Boksburg, Booysens with TurfFontein ( 
Braamfontein (Johannesburg), Christiana, Cleveland, 
Doornfontein (Johannesburg), Fordsburg (Johannesburg), 
Germiston, Heidelberg, Jeppestown (Johannesburg), Johan- 
nesburg (S. Mary's, S. Saviour's and S. Alban's), Klerks- 
dorp, Krugersdorp, Lydenburg, Maraisburg, Middelburg, 
Nigel, Nylstroom and Warmbaths, Parktown, Pietersburg, 
Potchefstroom, Pretoria (Cathedral), Pretoria (S. Mark's), 
Railway Camp (Pretoria), Randfontein, Roodepoort, 
Rosettenville, Rustenburg, Standerton, Sunnyside (Pre- 
toria), Volksrust, Wakkerstroom, Waterval Boven, Yeo- 
ville, Zeerust. Occasional services are held in addition at 
Sy outlying places, at some every Sunday, at others once a 
fortnight, or once a month, and at a few only once a quarter. 
Visitors will not be favourably impressed with the 
structural beauty of the Anglican places of worship ; but 
they must bear in mind that English people were strangers 
and pilgrims until very lately. The only parochial district 
that can boast of sufficient wealth to contemplate a church 
with any architectural, pretensions is S. Mary's in the 
centre of Johannesburg. In the early days of the city some 
stands were purchased by a few churchmen and presented 
to the Church, in order that a temporary j^\afj^ ol nn^x^^ccc?;^ 
might be built and that, if the town ^t^>N,\^^\^^^'^^ ^"^^^ 


might be realised and a permanent church erected out of 
the proceeds of the sale. Before the war, when there was 
a great demand for general church extension in the Trans- 
vaal, a question arose whether the land so given was for 
the whole diocese, or the Witwatersrand, or simply for 
S. Mary's Church. The problem was submitted to 
arbitrators, who decided that the stands in dispute were for 
S. Mary's parish. Some of the land has been sold, and 
from the proceeds the S. Mary's Parish Hall has been 
built — in which the larger meetings of the British Asso- 
ciation will this year be held. An imposing permanent 
church is in prospect of being erected as soon as practicable* 
A Mission Church (S. Saviour's) in connection with S, 
Mary's serves the southern part of the district, another 
(S. Cyprian's) the aboriginals, and a third (S. Alban's) the 
Cape people. 

S. Augustine s, Dooinfontein, — A fine new permanent 
church has been partly built (chancel and transepts) at 
Doornfontein, entirely by the voluntary efforts of the con- 
gregation. This Church also supports a suburban mission. 

Christ Church, Fordsburg, — Mainly by contributions 
from the Crown Reef Gold Mine Company and its officials 
a commodious Church has been built at Fordsburg, some 
two miles to the west of Johannesburg ; which, before the 
war was the only building of any pretensions to be called 
a church. It is not well attended. 

S, John's, Belgravia. — Stands in the centre of a pleasant 
suburb and owes its existence to the enterprising liberality 
of the Witwatersrand Township Estate Company. 

There is a Church of moderate dimensions at Jeppes- 
town and another at Booysens. Parktown has a Parish 
Hall, but no Church as yet. Braamfontein has no Church 
at present, but services are regularly held in an iron room 
rented from the Dutch Reformed Church. The Govern- 
ment owns most of the vacant land, but is not disposed ta 
donate any of it for religious purposes. 

The Cathedral. — The Bishop's chair is at Pretoria, and 

there also Church edifices are very unpretentious. It was 

contemplated to build a great Cathedral Church as a 

memorial of the war, but this idea Vs tvo\. \\VftVj lo be 



realised. The Cathedral is responsible for servicfiB at 
Sunnyside, Gezina, the Railway Camp, Arcadia, Valeria, 
the Prison, the S.A.C. Camp and Pretoria North. The 
Good Shepherd Mission is for coloured people. S. Mark's, 
Pretoria, is a small district Church built before the war. 

New churches have been erected since the war at 
Cleveland (East Rand), Krugersdorp (West Rand), Nigel 
(Heidelberg District) ^pd Roodepoort (West Rand), in 
addition to thoee nathed above. Eighteen more are 


urgently required, especially at Braamfonteln and the 
Premier Mine. 

About ^2D,ooo a year is required for Diocesan pur- 
poses, the greater part of which is raised by subscriptions. 
A small sum is derived from parochial contributions. The 
total sum raised by the Diocese during 1904 for all pur- 
poses (exclusive of endowments, rents and interest) was 


Native Work, — Very little work is done by Anglicans 
among the aboriginal population of the Transvaal. 

" It is difficult to say how many Anglicans there are 
in the Transvaal. But it is said that of the white people 
buried in Johannesburg Municipal Cemetery, no less than 
two-fifths are buried by the clergy of the English Church^ 
On this basis it would appear that out of the 87,000 white 
people in Johannesburg Municipality alone, there are 34,800^ 
nominal members of the English Church." — Diocesan 
Report, igo^. 


The first service held by the Baptist Church in the 
Transvaal was on July 15, 1888, in the Good Templars*" 
Hall, Loveday Street, Johannesburg. 

The few Baptists among the early pioneers on the 
Rand all hailed from Grahamstown, Cape Colony. For 
some time this was the only Baptist congregation in the 
country, and work proceeded under great difficulties. In 
1890 the congregation moved to a building in Kerk Street^ 
which is now a bicycle repairing shop. The South African 
Republic granted the Church two stands in Johannesburg^ 
upon which a manse was first built ; and, later on, the 
present Plein Street Church, which was opened on June 28, 
1891. This is the " Mother Church" of the denomination 
in the Transvaal. Amongst the members are to be found 
men and women foremost m the ranks of Christian work 
in Johannesburg. The Church itself is full of activity. 
About the same time work was commenced in Pretoria. 
Several pastors laboured in that field, all with a measure 
of success. For some years the German Baptists had a 
church at Mayfair, Johannesburg. 

Offshoots of the Johannesburg congregation have been 
planted at Krugersdorp, Boksburg, Troyeville and Ger- 
miston. The work at Krugersdorp became an independent 
pastorate in 1896. The present place of worship is built 
on stands given by the Boer Government. Steady and con- 
tinued progress has marked the history of the cause there* 
The same may be said of Boksburg. The Troyeville 



Church, built in the centre of one of the best residential 
suburbs of Johannesburg, is very " go-a-head." 

The " Mother Church " started new work at Ger- 
miston early in 1894. A stand has been bought and a 
suitable place of worship erected. 

Wakkerstroom has had a Baptist congregation since 
1896. A place of worship was opened in 1905 at Brakpan 
Colliery through the zeal of the Boksburg congregation. 
In 1905 a new church was opened at Roodepoort. 



In 1890 the Churches then in existence formed them- 
selves into "The Transvaal Baptist Association," which 
in 1898 was merged into " The Transvaal Baptist Church 
Council." This has since been incorporated. 

Native Work'. — Missionary work has been carried on 
by individual Churches for years. In one case a very 
large " field " has been worked by means of native evan- 
gelists. The Transvaal Baptist Church Council cariy in 
the year 1903 decided to make a forward movement in this 
direction; the result of which has been the forma.tia'a. ^ 
the Transvaal Baptist Missionary SotiwX."] . 


A superintendent for missionary work has been 
appointed, with the Pretoria Native Location as head- 
quarters. A local committee is " working " the mines 
adjoining Johannesburg by means of European lay helpers 
and a native evangelist. D. W. R. 


The Congregational is among the least of the churches 
established in the Transvaal. It was late in planting, and 
has been somewhat slow of growth, but it is beginning to 
put forth its branches. 

New churches are in progress in several places. Its 
principal church for white people is in Bree Street, 
Johannesburg. Among the Cape coloured population, 
however, this denomination is especially strong. Five new 
churches have been opened this year ; a new school-room, 
called " Milner Hall," a new manse for the senior minister 
and superintendent, and a hall for a Young People's Chris- 
tian Association were completed in 1905. 

The church is largely of the Institutional type, and 
the last building mentioned will, it is hoped, do much for 
the intellectual and moral, as well as spiritual, development 
of the members. 

On a small scale, this Denomination is endeavouring 
to maintain the old Puritan traditions. It contends for 
large liberty in every sphere of life, and would extend the 
bounds of freedom from precedent to precedent. A very 
excellent monthly magazine, called " The Outlook," with a 
considerable circulation, is published by the Bree Street 
Church. C. P. 

Dutch Refornned Church. 

Visitors to South Africa are always impressed by the 

prominence given to religion by the Dutch, who, whenever 

they laid out a township, allotted the centre of the main 

public square as a site for a place of worship. That 

custom came with them to the Transvaa\,axi^V\i^\i>aM\\v!^s 



they erected for worship were always the finest in any 
town until commercial interests overshadowed everything. 
The original Dutch Church in South Africa was the 
Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk, which formulated opinions 
founded on tbe methods of Luther, Zwingle and Calvin. 
It was established first in Cape Colony. After a while 
some of its members " adopted liberal views " with regard 
to the Divinity of Christ. This caused the more ortho- 


dox, who were also the greater number, to separate and 
form the Nederduitsch Gtrtformetrdc Kerk ; and this be- 
came the recognised Dutch Church of Cape Colony, 
Orange River Colony and Natal. 

Members of the Hervormde and also of tbe Gerefor- 
'■eerde Kerks were among tbe original colonists who 
'r*tked to the Transvaal, and, as either school of thought 
pi'^londerated in a settlement, the H.MNat.\B&ft. -ot. "^m*. 


Gereformeerde Kerk would be established.. The war of 
1 88 1 brought members of both Kerks into closer fellowship, 
and common interest pointed the way to reunion. After 
that war, therefore, nearly all the congregations of both 
Kerks agreed to form an united community, which is now 
known as the Nederduitsch Hervormde of Gereformeerde 
Kerk. It is consequently the largest Dutch religious body 
in the Transvaal. A few irreconcilables of the Hervormde 
Kerk still hold back from unity, but they have only four 
small congregations. 

There is, however, a third section of Dutch Christians, 
known as the " Dopper " Church ; of which the late Presi- 
dent Kruger was a prominent member. The word 
** Dopper " comes from Doppe — a cup or basin — and has 
reference to the way male members of the community used 
to cut their hair. The Doppers are the Quakers of the 
Dutch community, and some of them still affect singularity 
of attire. Their first pastor in the Transvaal was Herr 
Postma, who had previously founded a Theological 
Seminary at Burgersdorp in Cape Colony. Theologically 
there is little variation between the Kerks, and the chief 
difference seems to be that the Doppers refuse to sing 
hymns and will only sing psalms. 

To the Hervormde of Gereformeerde Kerk belong all 
the large Dutch places of worship in the Transvaal. It is 
established in every important town, and is represented by 
38 different congregations. The confirmed members in 
1904 numbered 35,982 persons ; and the family rolls 
totalled 76,234 souls. M. 

Hebrew Congregations. 

A few Jews lived in the 'JVansvaal long before the 
** seventies " of the last century. M. de Vries, a Dutch 
Jew, was State Public Prosecutor in 1868 and Chairman 
of the Volksraad in 1872. In 1869 he received the public 
thanks of the State President for his services in connection 
with the ratification of the Treaty with Portugal. Religioup 
Services were inaugurated at Pretoria in 1876 by Dani^ 
M, Kisch, F.E.G.S., Adviser to Lobengula from 1868^0 
■^^7J> a-nd later, Auditor-General oi iVi^ 'V:x^.xi?N^a.l du'^i^g 



the first British occupation, 1877-1881. In 1878 a Jewish 
cemetery was consecrated at Pilgrim's Rest ; in 1883 
regular services started in Vryheid in the then new 
Republic; and in 1885 on the Barberton gold-fields. 

In 1886 Jewish services were first held .n the WJt- 
watersrand, and in July 1887, the " Witwatersrand Old 
Hebrew Congregation " was organised, which erected the 
first synagogue structure in the Transvaal on Nov. 9, 1888. 
Four yearslater, the " Johannesburg Hebrew Congregation" 



{Park Synagogue) and the "Beth Hammidrash " dedicated 
two new synagogues. Since then, synagogues have been 
opened at Pretoria, Heidelberg, Volksrust, Klerksdorp, 
Boksburg, Krugeradorp, Gerniiston,Roodepoort, and several 
in the suburbsof Johannesburg. Theprincipal Jewish schools 
are the Government Jewish School, with 530 children, 
at Johannesburg, and the Miriam Marks School at Pretoria. 
The Jewish charities in the Transvaal are, as every- 
where, well organised. The Johannesburg Helping Hand 
and Burial Society (founded in 1887) has a membership of 
3,000, and spends over £"4,000 ^t wmuTtv va. v^^ t^^ri^.. 


Johannesburg is also the seat of the South African Jewish 
Orphanage, the Executives of the South African Zionist 
Federation and the Jewish Board of Deputies for the 
Transvaal and Natal. It also possesses two Jewish 
newspapers and a number of miscellaneous Jewish societies. 
The Jewish population in the Transvaal cannot be 
much under 25,000. It has always formed an integral 
portion of the business, intellectual, social and political life 
of the Colony, and has contributed its full share to the 
development of the country. There were seven Jews among 
the sixty-four reformers imprisoned at Pretoria in 1896. 
Jews participated in the Uitlander movement of 1899, and 
some of them joined the irregular British forces during the 
war. There were also Jewish '* irreconcilables " who fought 
under the Vierkleur to the bitter end ; and scores of Jewish 
prisoners were to be found at St. Helena, Bermuda and 
Ceylon. J. H. H. 


Presbyterianism in the Transvaal commenced at the 
time of the discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand. 
Before then Scottish settlers were dependent for religious 
services either upon the Dutch Reformed Church, which 
has a Presbyterian government, or upon other English 
speaking Churches. In June 1887, the Presbytery of Natal 
started what is now St. George's Church in Noord Street, 
Johannesburg, the largest Presbyterian Church in South 
Africa. Two years later another minister was appointed 
for Germiston and Boksburg, and in 1890 the Pretoria 
Church was constituted. These three congregations were 
then constituted as a separate Presbytery. Since 1890 the 
work of the Church has steadily progressed, and new 
charges are continually being inaugurated. 

Fordsburg was the first suburb to be occupied. A 
substantial church and manse have been built there. 
The Jeppestown work began in 1894; a niodest hall was 
opened for services in 1897, succeeded in 1904 by the 
handsome St. Andrew's Church in Commissioner Street. 
Another Church was establisVied \iv 1^97 in de Korte 



Street, Braamfontein. 
Since the war a new 
congregation has been 
formed in Yeoville. 
A hall for worship is 
in process of erection. 
Similar progress is evi- 
dent in other towns of 
the Transvaal. The 
congregations of Ger- 
miston and Boksburg 
were disjoined in 1896 
to each. A fine church 
hall and manse are now 
being erected at Ger- 
niiston to take the place 
of the temporary build- 
ing hitherto used. 
Boksburg has had a 
commodious hail and 
manse for some time. 
New congregations 
have been formed at 
Springs, Middelhurg, 
Pot chef stroom, Krugersdorp and Standerton, and preaching 
stations, with regular services, have been erected at Heidel- 
berg, TurfFontein, Modderfontein (the dynamite factory), 
and the Premier Diamond Mine. 

Native Wc-i.— The Kaffrarian Presbytery of the 
United Free Church of Scotland has extensive missions 
and schools in the Zoutpansherg district, where the native 
population is densest, while the Transvaal Presbytery 
itself has a large mission on the Rand and in Pretoria. A 
staff of evangelists carries on services in eight stations on 
the Reef, and in the native church at Pretoria. A note- 
worthy feature of the Presbyterian Church of South Africa 
is that its members are drawn from all branches of the 
Presbyterian Church in Britain, each of which has sent men 
and mone^ to aid the work in tiieTta.ti4Naa\, '9^,'^.'^. 






Roman Catholic. 

The first permanent establishment of this community 
in the Transvaal was at Pretoria where the late Bishop 
Jolivet arrived with the Loreto Sisters in 1887 ; but 
previous to that date the late Father Walshe, O.M.I., had 
visited several places in the Transvaal, especially the 
Lydenburg gold-fields in 1875. 

Permanent churches are now erected in all the principal 
centres of the Transvaal. The clerical staff in 1905 con- 
sists of one Bishop and 25 priests. There are 18 Marist 


Brothers, and between 120 and 130 members of different 
religious sisterhoods now engaged in scholastic and 

charitable institutions in the Transvaal. There are be- 
tween 8,000 and 10,000 members of the church in this 
country. The principal churches are in Johannesburg, Pre- 
toria, Potchefstroom, Lydenburg, Pietersburg, Barberton, 
Germiston and Krugersdorp. 

£dueational. — There are five con vent schools in Johannes- 
burg, viz.,Parktowa, Doornfontein,BTaa.T[vSoate,in,Fotdsburg 


and President Street East. Pretoria, Lydenburg, Potchef- 
stroom, Klerksdorp, Heidelberg and Krugersdorp have 
each a convent school. At present the community has only 
one school exclusively for boys in the Transvaal, and that 
is the well-known Marist Brothers* school on Hospital Hill,. 
Johannesburg. In this school there are about 500 boys. 

Charitable Institutions, — " Nazareth House," Yeoville^ 
Johannesburg, provides for orphans of both sexes and 
children of poor parents, and for the aged and destitute poor 
of both sexes. Including the Sisters (15), the Institution 
provides for nearly 500 inmates, and is completely depend- 
ent on public charity, which, to the honour of the Transvaal,, 
but especially of Johannesburg, has never failed. 

The present unfinished building has cost up to date 
nearly ;^4o,ooo. The whole work of the Institution is 
carried on by the Sisters and children; no servants are 
employed, with the exception of a couple of Kaffirs who 
are employed in stable and garden work. . 

" The Sisters of the Good Shepherd " were established 
in Johannesburg during 1904. Their principal work is to 
reclaim the fallen and inebriate of their own sex. This 
work depends at present almost entirely on public charity,, 
helped by the plain and ornamental needlework given them. 

DE L. 


The Wesleyan Church in Cape Colony, Natal and the 
Orange River Colony, with some 400,000 adherents, is 
under a separate Conference, but the Transvaal and 
Swaziland District is still administered from England,, 
under a Chairman and General Superintendent. 

The work of the Church in the Transvaal was com- 
menced by a devout native, who came up with a Boer in 
the Great Trek in 1836. In 1870 European ministers 
were sent to take up both English apd Native work. In 
the earlier days a number of English day schools were 
carried on, but these have not been resumed since the war^ 
as the Church is content that elementary education, at any 
rate, should be in the hands of the Government, so long as 
the Bible is not disallowed in the Goverxwxv^w^ ^cV^'Ck^V^. 


The following are some of the statistics for the 
year 1904: — 

European Ministers, 53 ; Native Ministers, 20 ; 
Churches, 242 ; other places of worship, 400 ; Sunday 
School teachers, 672 ; Lay Preachers, 929 ; members of 
the Church, 22,098; Baptisms in 1904, 4,107; scholars in 
English Sunday Schools, 4,800 ; scholars both Native and 
English, 11,339; voluntary offerings in 1904, ;^39,ooo. 

These statistics furnished by the General Superintendent 
tell their own tale of enterprise and progress. The vigour 
and completeness with which the Wesleyan community 
organises, are universally acknowledged, and up to the time 
when war broke out in 1899, Wesleyans had by far the 
largest following among English religious denominations. 
One of the first public acts performed by Lord Selborne 
as Governor of the Transvaal was to lay the foundation 
rstone of extensions to a Wesleyan Church at Fordsburg, 
which when completed will hold 850 worshippers. A. B. 


Up to the year 1890 there were no railways in the 
Transvaal, but during that year a " tram-line '* was laid 
between Springs and Roodepoort to facilitate traffic along 
the Reef. (There is now a double line of rails on that route.) 

Meanwhile, and owing to the difficulty of obtaining 
food supplies for the mines, arrangements were sanctioned 
ior bringing the Transvaal into railway communication 
with coast ports. During 1901 several sections of line 
were constructed in order to connect with the Cape Govern- 
ment Railway system. The final section (Vaal River to 
Germiston) was opened September 15, 1892, thus establish- 
ing direct communication between Johannesburg and 
Capetown. The section between Germiston and Pretoria 
was opened on New Year's Day, 1893. 

The line from Pretoria to Delagoa Bay was in progress 

•during the same period, but not completed until November 

18, 1894. A third line from Germiston to the Natal border 

was then well under way ; the opening of the Heidelberg 


Union Section taking place on December 15, 1895. 
There are thus three routes from the coast for Transvaal 
traffic; the chief ports for goods being Durban and 
Louren9o Marques. No small friction is at times occa- 
sioned lest one of those ports should obtain undue advantage 
over another. Port Elizabeth and East London are alsa 
utilised as ports of entry for heavy goods traffic. 

The total length of line constructed up to April 1903^ 
measured 1,387 miles. Since then several new branch 
lines have been opened, which, with others under con- 
struction on December 31, 1904, will bring the total 
mileage up to 2,654 iniles ; so that the works set on foot 
since the war have practically doubled the Transvaal 
railway system. Many Boers whom the war impoverished 
have been employed on these construction works. 

A new through connection has been made by a line fron> 
Vereeniging to Johannesburg via Langlaagte, instead of 
through Germiston. This brings the commercial centre 
some hours nearer to Capetown than formerly. A section 
of the Springs-Eastward line was opened at the beginnings 
of August 1905. 

The line is a narrow guage (3' 6"), but the rolling 
stock overhangs the wheels more than in Europe, and,, 
therefore, the available carriage space is about the same^ 
But a narrow guage is an obstacle to great speed. An 
average of 30 miles an hour is the most that the fastest 
passenger trains are able to accomplish. 

Train Mileage, — In 1903 this was 9,157,567 miles; in 
1904 it was brought down to 7,418,243 miles, owing to the 
importation of more powerful engines, and better working. 

Catering. — This service on the Transvaal railways used 
to be let out to contractors ; but in 1904 it was brought more^^ 
directly under the control of the Traffic Department with 
very great advantage to the travelling public. 

Sanitation, — This leaves much to be desired. The 
lavatory and waiting room accommodation at Pretoria 
Station is of the most primitive character. 

The European salaried staff of the railway on Dec. 31^ 
1904, was 1,531 persons and the AaW'^ ^^\A %\a.^^ '^^'i.^^. 




There is besides a large amount of native labour 
-employed on the railways ; and the Railway Report for 
1904 states that no difficulty has been experienced in 
getting all the labourers required. High fees used to be 
paid for recruiting native labour, but these are no longer 
necessary because more natives volunteer for the work than 
there is work for them to do. Compounds are provided 
for natives at Pretoria, Johannesburg and Germiston, 


The Railway Administration has spent in the past so 
much money for imported timber that it has recently voted 
^5,000 a year for ten years " for the planting of treea best 
suited to the soil and climate for use at the proper time 
as railway sleepers and for other railway purposes," 

Travellers will notice that most of the country railway 

stations are flanked by clumps of trees including many fruit 

varieties. Planting and gardening in the intervals between 

tbe trains has a saiutary effect on the alafi ot iba smaller 


stations. In other directions the Railway Administration 
evinces its interest in the welfare of employees in order to 
attract steady men. ;^ioo,ooo was voted during 1903-4 for 
providing suitable housing at the Braamfontein Dep6t^ 
Johannesburg, and elsewhere ; " the rents of which are kept 
as low as possible consistent with a return towards payment 
of interest on capital." This has proved so great a boon 
to railway workers in view of the extraordinarily high rents- 
which are charged by private landlords for house accom- 
modation, that a further ;^i 00,000 is about to be expended 
in a similar direction, that the staff may be adequately 
housed. The average pay of the salaried staff is ;^223 7s. 5d^ 
per annum, and that of the daily paid staff ^203 7s. 3d.^ 
These rates of pay seem high at first sight to European 
visitors ; but not when the corresponding cost of living is- 
taken into account. 

Railway Institutes and Clubs have been established at 
different centres, which encourage the staff in mental 
recreation and out- door sports. The usual sick, etc., funds 
are in operation, and a superannuation fund in course of 
formation, and it is proposed to provide Training Institutes 
for practical education in Railway Working. 

New headquarter offices have been built during 1905, 
close to Park Station, Johannesburg ; in which provision is 
made for a library of standard literature on railways and 
their administration. 

Taking it all round, the Central South African Rail- 
way, although much abused by the merchants on account 
of high traffic rates, may be described as anxious to do its 
best for its patrons and its servants. But in this, as in 
every other important matter, the perfer.tness of old estab- 
lished European systems will not yet be looked for by 
thoughtful travellers. They will rather wonder that so- 
much has been done in so little time in face of so many^ 

The gross railway earnings for 1904 were ;^4,587,779 
The working expenditure during 1904 was ;^2,885,i49 

Net earnings ;^i, 702,630 


The total railway traffic dealt with by the system dur- 
ing 1904 was 4,238,851 tons. The number of passengers 
carried during 1904 was 5,468,366. C. A. L. 


Elementary Education. 

The present educational r^gimt dates from the last few 
months of the year 1900, when schools were opened in 
Pretoria under the Military Governor. In 1901 the schools 
in Johannesburg began to reopen ; the system of education 
in the Concentration Camps was started, and schools on the 
line of rail were instituted or renewed. In 1902 the 
«stabllshment of farm schools {to avoid any break in the 
education of the many thousands who went back to their 
homes from the Concentration Camps, where one year's 
tuition had been given) was a natural tendency, while 
/urtber extension away from the railway was promoted 
wherever possible. 



In 1903 an Education Ordinance provided for a system 
of' free elementary education for children of European 
descent on both sides, for Higher Technical and Mining 
Schools, for schools for coloured children, and grants in 
aid of native schools to the various missionary agencies. 
Detective and incorrigible children were also legislated for. 

State control on undenominational lines (modified by a. 
delegation of certain advisory powers to local bodies, and 
the "right of entry" to supplement undenoitii national 
education) is the present method. The numbers in Govern- 



Examinations, other than the school examinations, are 
not recognised in primary schools ; but the lower and 
leaving certificate examinations may be supplemented by 
•examinations of the University of the Cape of Good Hope 
High Schools. 

Home work, sport, volunteering and libraries are en- 
couraged as part of the school life outside school hours, 
which run in summer for five hours with short breaks, and 
in winter as far as possible in two sessions with a long 
interval for the mid- day meal. Long periods on a farm are 
necessarily trying to teachers, and efforts are always made 
to exchange town and country teachers with a view to 
lightening the isolation which exists in districts remote from 
the railway. 

The ravages of war, and most pressing deficiencies in 
buildings and equipment, have been partially replaced by an 
apportionment of the loan, but the interim and future 
development has not been fully coped with, nor can the 
programme be carried out under several years, without a 
considerable yearly vote. Johannesburg and Pretoria were 
more fortunately placed in the matter of buildings at the 
conclusion of hostilities, and the former city benefited in 
this respect from the good work of a Council of Education 
prior to the war ; but the development in both centres has 
counterbalanced the advantages. A fully equipped system 
of schools in the capital and on the Rand requires a large 
outlay, without reckoning on a very large and certain 
increase in population in the near future. 

The necessary supply of teachers at the outset could 
not be fully met from the men and women of the Colony ; 
and their number had to be supplemented by the importa- 
tion of certificated members of the profession. These were 
drawn from the British Isles, Canada, Australia and New 
Zealand. A Normal College has, however, come into ex- 
istence — the pupil-teaeher system being discouraged — and 
the majority of teacheis will in future be Colonists trained 
therein. The course is at present of one year's duration, 
but it presupposes certain academic qualifications. Later 
on the college course will be extended over two years. 

The Education Department anticipates that it will in 


future be able to build Town Schools at a cost of from £is 
to ;£2o per head. The cubic space allowed per child will 
be 150 feet (12 J feet floor space) for children who have 
passed the first standard ; and 10 feet of floor space for 
each infant. Several schools have been built of the type 
shown in the foregoing illustration. G. L. 

The Transvaal Volunteers. 

Speaking at a banquet given in his honour at the con- 
clusion of the War, Lord Kitchener urged his audience not 
to forget the lessons of the campaign, but to keep up the 
organisations of their ** distinguished regiments." He then 
announced that he had been able to arrange with the Home 
Government and Lord Milner that 500 each of the First 
and Second Regiments of the Imperial Light Horse, South 
African Light Horse, Scottish Horse and Johannesburg 
Mounted Rifles should retain without preliminary cost their 
horses, rifles and equipments. To Lord Kitchener's 
initiative the formation of a Volunteer Force in the Colony 
may thus be attributed. 

A Committee was formed, consisting of several in- 
fluential residents who were known to be interested in the 
movement, with the object of determining the lines on 
which it would be most advisible to commence. The 
Committee recommended an organization, which was 
adopted, and also drew up the Volunteer Regulations. 

The organization adopted followed the scheme out- 
lined by Lord Kitchener, with the addition of four infantry 
corps, the Central South African Railway Volunteers, the 
Transvaal Light Infantry and the Transvaal Scottish ; the 
establishment of the infantry being fixed at, roughly, 800 
men per corps. 

In October, the Volunteer Corps Ordinance, 1902, was 
published, authorising the formation of the force on the 
above basis. Recruiting was commenced in earnest in 
December 1902. 

Exclusive of the Witwatersrand District in which all 
these corps (except the Left Wing I.L..K.^ ^Y^sss.^ >ass^^- 



quarters were fixed at Potchefstroom) were allowed to 
recruit, the Colony was divided into five divisions, each of 
these divisions being allotted to one mounted corps, as 
follows : — 

Elandsfontein District, S. A. Light Horse. 

Marico and Potchefstroom District, Left Wing, Im- 
perial Light Horse. 

Standerton District, Johannesburg Mounted Rifles. 

Middelburg District, Scottish Horse. 

Pretoria District, Northern Rifles. 

The C.S.A.R. Volunteers were confined to employees 
of the Central South African Railway, and the remaining 
Infantry Corps to the Witwatersrand District. 



In March, 1903, the necessity of a Medical Unit was 
recf^nised and the Transvaal Volunteer Medical Staff 
Corps was formed, with headquarters at Johannesburg, but 
allowed to recruit in any district of the Transvaal. The 
establishment was fixed at, roughly, 400 men. 

In May, 1903, several offers of raising volunteers in 
fretoria haviog been received, it was decided to raise el 


Composite Corps, with headquarters at Pretoria, to be 
called the Northern Rifles, to which the whole of the 
Northern Transvaal should be allotted for a recruiting 
area ; the establishment being fixed at, roughly, 600 
mounted men and 400 infantry. 

In the same month it was thought advisable to form a 
corps in connection with the mines, in order to tap the large 
amount of material there available ; consequently, the Wit- 
watersrand Rifles, with an establishment of, roughly, 1,200 
men, was raised. 

Soon after the commencement of the movement, the 
Chief Staff Officer, Transvaal Volunteers, Lieut.-Colonel 
J. E. Capper, R.E., resigned, and was succeeded in January 
19051 by Lieut.-Colonel A. H. M. Edwards, C.B. 

At the end of the first year, that is, on June 30, 1903, 
when the Force had been in actual existence for eight 
months, the results were as follow : — 

Corps. Enrolled Strength. 

Mounted Volunteers 1,969 
Infantry 1,812 







Totals 3>78i 2,597 1,184 

It is interesting to note that of the efficients no less than 
2,224 had either seen service in the late war or elsewhere. 

The cost of raising and maintaining the Force for the 
first eight months of its existence amounted to about 
;^99,ooo, or a cost of £26 4s. per head of the Force. 

During 1904, the second year of its existence the 
Volunteer Force increased materially, both in numbers 
and efiiciency, and a Volunteer Battery of Artillery was 
formed, with an establishment of about 130. The Cadet 
movement was also commenced, 718 boys being enrolled by 
the end of the year. 

The cost of maintaining the Force during the year 
amounted to about ;^I43,400, which works out at a cost of 
about ;^30 per head of the Force. 


During the year 1905 several important alterations 
and additions in the organisation of the volunteers were 
made, the most noticeable being the formation of two 
Composite District Corps, with establishments similar to 
that of the Northern Rifles ; they are, the Western Rifles, 
with headquarters at Potchefstroom, absorbing the Left 
Wing, I. L. H., and having as its recruiting area the whole 
of the Western Transvaal, and the Eastern Rifles, with 
headquarters at Standerton, having as its recruiting area^ 
the whole of the Eastern Transvaal. 

Another great alteration has been made in regard 
to the organisation of the Cadet movement. This is now 
established on a regimental basis, three battalions being on 
the Witwatersrand and one at Pretoria ; this system was 
adopted, as the former one of attaching Cadets to volunteer 
units, proved unsuccessful. 

Headquarter Offices and a Drill Hall, near the Union 
Ground, which were commenced at the beginning of 1904^ 
were completed about September, and have proved a great 

The Drill Hall is believed to be the largest in South 
Africa, its dimensions being 150 x 80 feet. 

As musketry practice is rightly considered a most 
important part of the training of the volunjteer, very 
satisfactory range accommodation has been provided, the 
total number of ranges now erected being 24.. 

On the largest of these, the Booysen's Range, near 
Johannesburg, the Annual Transvaal Bisley is held, lasting 
10 days, when shooting men from all S.A. Colonies compete. 

The permanent Staff, which is made up largely of 
officers and non-commissioned officers drawn from the 
Regular Army, is employed under the commandant to 
organise and administer the force, and consists of a head 
quarter-staff for the whole force and one adjutant and a 
proportion of sergeant-instructors to each corps. 

An annual camp of exercise is held at Easter, lasting 

for about 4 days, during which a large proportion of the 

volunteer force carry out their training. The first year the 

camp was held 2,267 volunteers attended; this year 3,141 

attended. [E. A. B.] 


\ V